New proof of Darwin’s theory of evolution


About 150 years ago, the fossil of this “dinobird” was discovered and celebrated as proof of Charles Darwin’s new theory of evolution.

Now fast word to a few weeks ago: The famous fossil, the Thermopolis specimen of Archaeopteryx lithographica, made its way by truck from the Wyoming Dinosaur Center to the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource in California, where it was meticulously scanned by one of the world’s most powerful X-ray machines, a building-sized device created for physics research.

By looking for traces of specific elements left in the slab of limestone as the bird decomposed, the researchers hope to uncover heretofore-unseen details of the soft tissue that once surrounded the well-preserved bones.

The X-rays, generated by SSRL’s high-speed electrons as they race around a 260-foot-diameter ring, cause the elements to glow, revealing the ghost of soft tissue or feathers.

“If you want to find a single fossil which is a missing link in the evolution of dinosaurs into birds, this is it,” said University of Manchester paleontologist Phil Manning, a member of the research team. “It’s a bird with sharp teeth, claws and a long bony tail. If you were to freeze-frame evolution, you would end up with Archaeopteryx.”

“What you normally can’t see are the chemical elements from the original organism that might still be present in the fossil,” said SSRL scientist Uwe Bergmann. “Using X-ray fluorescence imaging, we can bring these elements to light, getting a better look at the fossil and learning more about the original animal.”

“These X-rays work a thousand time better than what you could do with a commercial X-ray machine. Only a synchrotron can do this,” Bergmann said. SSRL is part of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, which is operated by Stanford University for the Department of Energy.

In addition to offering a new view of a long-extinct animal, this work may also reveal more about fossilization itself. By understanding how fossilization occurs and what exactly is preserved in the process, researchers will be able to deduce much more about ancient organisms and evolution.

The Archaeopteryx fossil holds a unique place in history. It was brought to London soon after Darwin published his stunning On the Origin of Species in 1859. With perfect timing, the old bones played a major roll in the controversy Darwin had stirred up.


“This fossil was the savior of Darwin,” Manning said. “As soon as it arrived in London, all of Darwin’s supporters realized that this was an intermediate animal, an evolutionary freak that they needed to study. It was half way between dinosaur and bird. This is the single most important fossil in paleontology for that simple reason.

” It was used to beat the living daylights out of the nonsense which had been put forward as to the reason for why animals were present on this planet. Here, Darwin’s theory of descendant with modification was hammered home with this one example of transitionary form, of an animal between dinosaur and bird.”

The fossil research is one example of how the SSRL is shining new light on fields as diverse as paleontology, medicine, and the history of mathematics. The SSRL’s hair-thin X-ray beam has been used, for example, to make visible the hidden writing in a medieval copy of a mathematical treatise from the Greek mathematician Archimedes. Tuned to specific energies, the X-rays produced images of phosphorus and calcium from the ink used on the papyrus document, which had been covered with paint.

Earlier this year, at the request of Stanford library officials and an academic researcher, the laser-like X-ray beam was used to scan a score by the Italian composer Luigi Cherubini (1760 – 1842). Portions of the work had been covered over with carbon-black ink, but after the scan, “The researcher was able to look right through the ink and read the score,” said Mary Miller, a Stanford preservation librarian. “I think he was thrilled.”

“This is the very infancy of this new scientific method,” said paleontologist Peter Larson of the Black Hills Institute in South Dakota. “We don’t even know enough about this to know the right questions to ask yet. All of a sudden, we can look at fossils in a very different and new way.”

Top 5 Best National Parks

1. Carlsbad Caverns National Park- New Mexico

It’s time to pull out your spelunking shoes and go caving at Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. No other National Park offers a more other-worldly experience than Carlsbad, as visitors can cozy up next to bizarre-looking stalactites and stalagmites around every corner. There are 116 different caves to explore, and visitors can take underground elevators to reach some of the caves’ deepest viewing spaces. When was the last time you took a leisurely stroll in a place 750 feet underground?
Welles is an outdoor enthusiast who writes on behalf of, a leading provider of jobs in Alaska.

2. Volcanoes National Park- Hawaii

Ever seen flowing lava up close? We didn’t think so. Volcanoes National Park in Hawaii allows its visitors the extraordinary experience of coming within yards of molten lava. Active volcanoes spew lava into the Pacific Ocean, adding acres of land mass to the island of Hawaii every year. Visitors can explore lush jungle environments and even explore lava tubes— vast underground tunnels caused by old lava flows that are big enough to drive a Greyhound bus through.
The best part about visiting Volcanoes National Park? The fact that it’s in Hawaii. And the park certainly makes a vacation out to paradise even more appealing.

3. Canyonlands National Park- Utah

Noted author Edward Abbey once called Canyonlands National Park “the most weird, wonderful, magical place on earth—there is nothing else like it anywhere.”
He sure was right. From captivating mountain vistas, to lazy floats down the Colorado River, to thrilling hikes through claustrophobic slot canyons, this park is a favorite destination of many park explorers. There are also countless petroglyphs left behind by the Anasazi Indians, so you can also get your fill of ancient archaeology!

4. Denali National Park- Alaska

The great state of Alaska has a staggering number of 8 national parks to choose from. While all of them are breathtaking in their own right, the crown jewel is undoubtedly Denali National Park.
Home to Mt. McKinley, North America’s tallest mountain, pictures simply cannot convey what it’s like to stand at the base of a 20,327 ft. snow-capped peak. And with over 6 million acres to explore in this prodigious park, one could spend a whole lifetime exploring its realms and not see the same corner twice.
Perhaps the only thing that stands in the way of making a visit to Denali is its remote location. Luckily for the bold, there are plenty of outdoor-related summer jobs in Alaska, which could give you all the opportunity you need to explore this awe-inspiring park.

5. Olympic National Park- Washington State

If you’re like most people, when you hear the word “rainforest” you think of tropical climates, colorful parrots, and howling monkeys. If this is true, then it may come as a surprise to you that there is a rainforest in the contiguous United States as well.
The Hoh Rainforest in Olympic National Park receives an astounding average of 165 inches of precipitation a year, which creates some of the lushest, densest forestry imaginable. Spend one day in the Hoh Rainforest and you’ll think you’ve seen enough green to last yourself a lifetime. Definitely make sure to visit this exotic locale, just make sure to pack a raincoat!

Telepathy: How Can You Develop Telepathy Skills?

Telepathy, like many other skills based upon techniques that are psychically oriented, is something most of us can do, but simply don’t know how telepathy can best be used. What is it? Telepathy is the ability to communicate with others by using the powers of your mind instead of with ordinary methods of communication. When it comes to telepathy, how communication is done is by directly transferring your feelings, sensations, thoughts, ideas, emotions, and even mental pictures to others — all without speaking or doing other normal forms of communication.
Many of us display small signs of telepathic ability without even realizing it. Horse whispers, have a heightened telepathic relationship with animals that allow them to know what they are thinking.
People can be telepathic with each other, too. Twins are one example of what can be one very strong telepathic bond. Perhaps you have seen twins “converse” with each other without ever actually speaking. No one really knows just how they can do this, but anyone can do this with anyone they have a very strong connection to. For example, life partners or spouses can sense when their partner is in pain, in danger, suffering, etc.
Sometimes called the “sixth sense,” telepathy may very well be something, just another “sense,” that we all possess. We just have to be able to tap into this skill, access telepathy, how works, and learn what we can use it for. Once we do this, we can develop our own telepathic skills and use them appropriately, too.
Oftentimes, people under stressful situations can actually tap into their telepathy even though they’ve never been formally trained in doing so. Regardless, though, it’s a good idea to actually practice telepathy, how to do it, when you’re calm. Test yourself during these peaceful situations, by getting a partner, like a relative or friend, to help you do this. One of the ways you can do this is to gather some small items are photos together, like rubber bands, pens, pencils, and then you and your partner should sit down facing away from each other in the same room, or use different rooms. Distractions should be nonexistent.
Focus on telepathy how to, meaning being present in the current moment as you complete the exercises. One person should be the sender and the other the receiver. The sender should take one object at a time and concentrate on sending a powerful emotion to the receiver. It may be a color, an image, or a word. To accurately test telepathy abilities, agree on what the signal will be before starting the exercises.
The person doing the “sending” will concentrate on sending telepathic messages to the person receiving them, and the receiver will then concentrate on receiving the information sent by the sender. The receiver should be absolutely relaxed such that he or she will be absolutely open to whatever the sender is going to send, including images, emotions, pictures, etc. The receiver can record whatever he or she receives from the sender by writing it down. Or, a sender can simply say that he or she is finished concentrating on a particular item and then the receiver can verbalize what he or she has seen.
When you practice telepathy, how to do it, agree with your partner on a signal beforehand. For example, you can agree that you will simply focus on colors, so that when the receiver says, “Done sending,” or some other similar signal, the receiver can then say the color aloud, such as “green.” Then, the sender can simply say, “yes, or “no,” before moving onto the next thing.
When you’re first beginning to practice telepathy, start with just 10 minutes a session before you try to make them longer or more complex. Each session can be “mixed up” a bit by having each partner play the part of the sender and receiver for part of the time. As you become more advanced in your telepathic skills, you can make images, etc., more complex by moving onto playing cards, and then focusing on the card suit or the number displayed. As you continue to practice, keep a record of the sessions you’ve done so that you can see how much progress you’ve made in your telepathic ability development.
You can also learn telepathy how to without using a partner. As a beginner you can focus on putting out a signal to those you already have a close spiritual or mental bond with to make the telepathic message more likely to be received. With this person in mind, turn your energies to sending them a message or getting them to take an action.
You could also focus on having a good friend or family member call you, or on getting your life partner, for example, to bring home something you need. It shouldn’t be a surprise to you as time goes on that the person who received your message will suddenly call home or bring home the item you are thinking about — all because of telepathy.
Pets are also great ways to learn telepathy, how to master it, because animals are very intuitive and open to this type of process. See how quickly you can pick up on pets’ feelings, such as if your dog is hungry, ill, or uncomfortable.
Don’t stop with people you know however. People with advanced telepathic abilities can even send signals to complete strangers. You can start to increase your telepathic communication by focusing on casual acquaintances, coworkers, neighbors and others who you come into regular contact with. Pay attention to when these individuals are experiencing intense emotions and you may be able to sense thoughts or words from their mind.

Open Your Eyes And Look


In this post you may see interesting forts of the Brest fortress.

A fort in Bernada village, in the south of Brest


The wall of the refuge


The fort was erected in 1912-15



A lookout in the ledge


After the Great Patriotic War here was made a city dump, all exits and entrances were buried

Inside the asylum there were buried highly toxic ammoniac fertilizers.




An auxiliary wall of the caponier


The buried inner wall of the caponier




Military casemates




Thick walls of the fort


Footprint of the fort destruction in 1915




Ammunition storage rooms




A niche for a kerosene lamp


Double-tee ceilings


The central gallery of the asylum



A gallery was used for artillery and ammunition storage and protection of military personnel.

Lookout point

A well of the lookout



Another buried exit


A photo of the fort taken from a dirigible during construction in 1914.

Scheme of the construction


AN-225 “MRIA” – The Biggest Aircraft In The World

AN-225 “MRIA” (from Ukrainian – “a dream”) is today the biggest and the heaviest aircraft with the highest cargo capacity in the World. This unique cargo plane was constructed in the 80′s by the Antonov’s Development Laboratory. Its length is 84 m, height – 18 m, total cargo capacity – 250 tons. Currently there is only one operative AN-225, and it belongs to a Ukrainian air company.







































ருத்ராக்ஷத்தின் சிறப்புகளும் பலன்களும்

சகலவேத ஆகமங்களிலும், ஆன்மீக நூல்களிலும் இறைவனாருக்கு உகந்த பொருட்களில் ஒன்றாக ஏற்றுக் கொள்ளப்பட்டது ருத்ராக்ஷமணிகள் ஆகும்.


ருத்ராக்ஷ மணிகளை சாதாரண பொருளாகக் கருதுவது மிகவும் தவறு. அதில் மறைந்துள்ள உண்மைகளும் தெய்வீக சக்திகளையும் இன்றைய அறிவியல் உலகமே கண்டு வியக்கிறது. வெளிநாட்டினரும் விரும்பி அணியக் கூடியது. பெண்களுக்குத் திருமாங்கல்யம் எவ்வளவு முக்கியமானதோ சிவனடியார்களுக்கு ருத்ராக்ஷம்.

ருத்ரம் என்ற புனிதப்பெயரிலிருந்து தோன்றியதாகக் கூட நாம் எடுத்துக் கொள்ளலாம்.திருமாங்கல்யம் உடைய பெண் எப்படி சுப காரியங்களுக்குத் தகுதியுடையவளோ அதேபோல ருத்ராக்ஷத்தை அணிந்தவன் சகல நல்ல காரியங்களுக்கும் தகுதியுடையவனாக ஆவான். சகலவேத ஆகமங்களிலும் சொல்லியபடி முக்தியை விரும்புபவர்களும் மற்றவர்களும் விபூதியைப் போலவே ருத்ராக்ஷத்தை அணிய வேண்டும். ருத்ராக்ஷத்தை அணிந்து கொண்டிருப்பவர்களைக் கண்டாலே சகலவித பாவங்களும் துன்பமும் அதி விரைவில் நீங்கும்.

திருமாங்கல்யத்தைப் பார்த்ததும் எப்படி ஒரு பெண்ணை சுமங்கலியாக நினைங்கிறோமோ அதைப்போன்று ருத்ராக்ஷத்தை அணிந்தவர்களைக் கண்டால் சிவனடியார் என்றே நினைக்க வேண்டும்.

சாபால உபநிடதமும் அட்சாமாலிகா உபநிடதமும் முழுக்க முழுக்க ருத்ராக்ஷத்தின் மகிமைகளையும் பெருமைகளையும் மட்டுமே கூறுகின்றன. அதனால் தான் வள்ளளாரும் “அக்கமா அணியும் உண்டாம்” என ருத்ராக்ஷத்தை சிறப்பித்துக் கூறுகிறார்.

ருத்ரரின் கண்ணிலிருந்து தோன்றிய ருத்ராக்ஷத்துக்கு சம்சார துக்கத்தை நீக்கும்படியான அருள்பார்வை என்பதற்குச் சிவ பெருமானைப் போலவே ருத்ராக்ஷமும் நம்மிடம் உள்ள தீமைகளை நீக்கி நமக்கு அருள்புரியும் என்பதும் விளங்கும் ருத்ராக்ஷம் துறவிகளுகக்கு மட்டுமின்றி இல்லறத்தாருக்கும் ஏற்புடையதே திருநீறை அணிவதுபோல ருத்ராக்ஷமும் அணியலாம்.

ருத்ராக்ஷ முகங்களைக் கணக் கெடுக்க, ஆரஞ்சு பழத்தை தோலுரித் துப்பார்த்தும் அதன் சுனைகள் எப்படி ஒன்றுடன் ஒன்று சேர்ந்து திருப்பது போல் ருத்ராக்ஷ முகங்களும் ஒன்றை யொன்று அடுத்தடுத்து சேர்ந்திருக்கும்.
ஒருமுகம் உள்ள ருத்ராக்ஷம் சாட்சாத் சிவ சொரூபமாகும். 


  இதனை அணிவதால் ப்ரும்மஹத்தி தோஷம் நிவர்த்தி ஆகிறது.

இரண்டு முக ருத்ராக்ஷம் தேவதேவி வடிவம் பலவிதமான பாவங்களைப் போக்க வல்லது. பசுவை வதம் செய்த பாவம் நீங்கும்.
தேவ தேவனாகிய சிவசக்தி வடிவான ஸ்ரீ அர்த்த நாரீஸ்வர சொரூபமாகும். இதனை அணிவதால் புத்தி பூர்வம், அபுத்தி பூர்வம் என்னும் இரண்டு வகையான பாப வினைகள் நீங்குகிறது.

முன்று முகமுள்ள ருத்ராக்ஷம் அக்னிவடிவம் கொண்டது இது பெண்ணைக் கொலை செய்த பாவத்தை ஒரு கணத்தில் எரிக்கும்.

நான்கு முகம் உள்ள ருத்ராட்சம் பிரம்ம தேவனின் வடிவம். அது மனிதவதை புரிந்த பாவத்தை நீக்கும்.

ஐந்து முகம் ருத்ராட்சம் ருத்ரனே ஆகும் காலாக்னி என்ற அதன் பெயரே சிறப்பாகும்.இதனை அணிபவருக்கு சிவ அனுக்ரகம் கிட்டும்

ஆறு முகம் ருத்ராட்சம் கார்த்திகேய வடிவம் அதை வலது கையில் அணிந்து கொள்ள வேண்டும் பிரம்மஹத்தியின் நிழல்கூட அண்டாது காக்கும்.
இதனை வலது காதில் குண்டலமாகவோ அல்லது வலது புஜத்தில் அணிவது விசேஷ பலன்களைக் கொடுக்கும்.

ஏழு முகமுள்ள ருத்ராட்சம் மன்மத வடிவம் பொன் முதலியவைகளைத் திருடிய பாவத்தைப் போக்கும் இது ஆதிசேடன் வடிவம் எனப்படும்.
பெரும் சம்பத்து, ஆரோக்கியம், ஐசுவரியம், ஞானம், வாக்குத் தூய்மை போன்ற நல்ல சுகபோகங்கள் வாய்க்கும்.

எட்டாவது முக ருத்ராட்சம் விநாயக வடிவம் தானத்தை திருடிய பாவம். தீய வெண்ணை அடைந்தபாவம் அடுத்தவர் உணவை உண்டதும், நீங்கும்.
இது ஸ்ரீ மஹாகணபதி ஸ்வரூபம். அஷ்ட வசுக்களை தெய்வமாகக் கொண்ட எட்டுமுக ருத்ராக்ஷத்தை தரிப்பவர்களுக்கு பலவகையான தோஷங்கள் நீங்குகின்றன.

ஒன்பது முகம் கொன்ட ருத்ராட்சம் பைரவ வடிவம். அதை இடது கையில்  அணிய வேண்டும். அது புத்தி, முக்தி முதலியவைகளைத் தரும். பரமேஸ்வரனுக்கு சமமான குணத்தையும் கொடுக்கும். முடிவில் சிவனிடமே சேர்க்க வல்லது. இது சிகப்பு நிறமுடையதாக இருக்கும். இதன் அதிர்ஷ்ட தேவதை அம்பிகை. இதனை இடது கையில் தரிப்பவர்கள் சிவ ரூபமாகவே கருதப்படுகிறார்கள். புத்தி முத்திகளை கொடுக்க வல்லது.

பத்துமுக ருத்ராக்ஷம்: “பத்து முகம் புவியுண்டவனிர் உருவம் மருவு நாளொரு கோள் பல, மண்ணைப் பூதங்கள் பிரம்மராக்கத பேதுறுப்புரியும் விரவு தீங்கெலாபம் வெயில் படுபனியென விளக்கும்.”இது விஷ்ணு ச்வரூபமாகும். தச திக்குகளுக்கு தேவதைகளின் சொரூபமாக விளங்கும் இந்த ருத்ராக்ஷத்தை தரிப்பவர்களுக்கு அந்தந்த தேவதைகளின் ப்ரீதி கிட்டும். கிரஹதோஷங்களையும், பூத பேய் பிசாசுகளை விரட்டும். சர்ப்ப விஷங்களையும் போக்கும்.

பதினொரு முகமுள்ள ருத்ராட்சம்
இது ஸ்ரீ ஏகாதச ருத்ரரின் ச்வரூபமாகும். இந்த ருத்ராக்ஷத்தின் பதினொரு முகங்களும் பதினொரு ருத்ர ஸ்வரூபங்களைக் குறிக்கும். அவை: போலி – பிங்கள – பீம – விரூபாக்ஷ – வியோகித – சாஸ்தா – அஜபாத – அஹிர்புத்தீய – சம்பு – சண்ட – பவ. இதனை சிரசில் தரிப்பதால் ஆயிரம் அஸ்வமேத யாகங்களை நடத்திய பலனும், கோடி கோதானம் செய்த பலனும் உண்டாகும்.

பன்னிரண்டு முகமுள்ள ருத்ராட்சம் : 12 சூரியர்களின் வடிவம் கோமேத, அசுவமேத யாகங்கள் செய்த பலன்களைத் தரும். கொம்புள்ள மிருகங்கள் ஆயுதம் தாங்கியவர்கள் பலி முதலியன கொடூர மிருகங்கள் முதலியவற்றால் வரும் பயம், தடுத்தும் எல்லாவற்றையும் தீர்க்கும் உடல் வியாதிகளால் வரும் துன்பங்கள் நீங்கும்.
துஷ்ட மிருகங்களால் துன்பம் ஏற்படாது. இதனைக் காதுகளில் அணிவது விஷேஷ பலனைத் தரும்.

பதின்மூன்று முகமுள்ள ருத்ராட்சம் கார்த்தி கேய வடிவம். அது எல்லா விருப்பங்களையும் பூர்த்தி செய்யும். தாய், தந்தை, சகோதரன் முதலியனவர்களைக் கொன்ற பாவத்தை நீக்கும்.
இந்திர ஸ்வரூபம். இந்த ருத்ராக்ஷத்தை ஸ்ரீசதாஷிவ ஸ்வரூபம் என்றும் என்றும் கூறுவர். இந்த ருத்ராக்ஷ மாலையை அணிவதால் சர்வ கார்ய சித்தி உண்டாகும்

பதினான்கு முகமுள்ள ருத்ராட்சம் அணிந்து கொள்பவன் சிவபெருமானுக்கு இணையானவனாகி தேவர்களாலும் போற்றி வணங்கப்பட்டு மோட்சத்தை அடைகிறான் அதன் மகிமை சொல்லில் அடங்காது. “சக்தி! நீயும் நானும் சேர்ந்த வடிவம் இது” என் பரமேஸ்வரனே தேவியிடம் கூறி இருக்கிறார். வசிய சக்தியைத் தரும். சிவ உலகிலேயே இருக்க வைக்கும். அதைக் கழுத்தில் அணிந்தால் உச்சரிக்கும் மந்திரங்கள் பலிக்கும் வெற்றி உண்டாக்கும்.
இந்த ருத்ராக்ஷத்தை ஸ்ரீ ருத்ரமூர்த்தி சொரூபம் எனவும், ஸ்ரீஹனுமான் சொரூபம் எனவும் கூறுவர். இது கிடைப்பது மிகவும் அரிது.

ருத்ராக்ஷங்களை அணிபவர் முறைப் படி சிவ பூசை செய்து, ”ஓம் நம சிவாய ” எனும் சிவ பஞ்சாக்ஷர மந்திரத்தை ஓத வேண்டும்.

Do You Really Know The Mathematics?

How to multiply any two digits number by 11

Let’s say that you want to find the product of 36 and 11. One way to find it would be to multiply 36 by 10 and then add 36 on the result. There is, however, a simple trick that’ll do the job for any two digits number. To find out the result, write the first digit followed by the addition of the first and second digit, followed by the second digit.


What happens if the sum of the two numbers is bigger than 9? In this case you add 1 to the first number, followed by the last digit of the addition of the two numbers, and then again you add the second number


Square any two digits number that ends with 5

Calculating the square of a number below 100 is extremely simple. If you want to find the square of 25 for example, you simply have to take the first digit (2), multiply it for the next higher number (3), and then add 25 to the result.



Multiply any two digits numbers with the same first digit and the second digit that sums up to 10

Let’s say that you want to multiply 42 and 48 together. Notice that they both start with 4, and that the sum of their second digit is 10. In this case there’s a simple rule that you can use to find their product. Simply multiply the first digit (4) for the next higher number (5) and then append the product of their second digits.



Note that if the product of the second digits is below ten, you have to add a 0 in front of it.

Multiply by 9

To multiply by 9, simply multiply by 10 and then subtract the number itself.

Quickly find percentages

To find out the 15% of a number, divide it by 10 and the add half of it.
To find out the 20% of a number, divide it by 10 and multiply the result by two.


When we were at school, we have been taught how to sum two or more numbers together by using the right to left approach. With this method, you first sum the decimal part of the number, then you move to the hundreds and so on. This works good on paper, but it’s a pain when you’re doing mental calculations. Fortunately, the solution is very easy.

Left to right approach

Instead of using a right to left approach, we can start from the left and move to the right. Take the following example:


Usually, you would first sum up 4 to 45, and then and 30 to the result. But by using the left to right approach, you first sum up 30 to 45, and then you add 4 to the result. Although this example is very simple, you’ll see the advantages of this method as you start to use it.
If you’re working with three digits numbers, the process is the same.


This example is a bit more complicated than the previous one, yet it’s very easy to solve using the left to right approach. You first start by adding 600 to 459, which results in 1059. Now the problem is simplified to 1049 + 37. You simplify it even further by adding 30 to 1049, and then you finally add 7 to the result.


Like with addition, you can use the left to right approach for subtracting to numbers together. This time, however, it may feel uncomfortable to keep track of borrowings (a borrowing occurs when you subtract a number to a bigger one, like 16 – 9). Let’s see an example of this.


In this case, you first start by subtracting 10 to 64, resulting in 54, and now you only have to subtract 7 to 54. You can, however, subtract 20 to 64 and add 3 to the result. This way you don’t have to worry about borrowings.

Using complements to simplify subtractions even more

There is a way to easily calculate 3 or 4 digits subtractions very quickly in your head. This technique makes use of complements. For example. let’s say that you’re facing the following problem:


Instead of following the standard left to right approach, you could solve this problem by subtracting 400 to 674 and then add 42 back to the result. 42 is the difference from 100 and 58. A good question is: how do you find 42?


Note that there’s a simple pattern for calculating the second number. In particular, the sum of the first digits always sum up to 9, and the sum of the second digits always sum up to 10. The only exception is when the number ends with 0, which is simpler.
You can use this technique to solve any subtraction very easily.


In order to solve simple multiplications, it’s helps a lot being comfortable with the multiplication table for numbers below 10.
As you may have already guessed, we’re going to use the left to right approach to solve simple multiplication very easily. Take the following example:


We can reduce it by first calculating 30 × 7 (which is like 3 × 7 plus a 0) and then add 6 × 7 on the result.


This approach can be used for even larger numbers. Note that you can also round up instead of rounding down:


6 Abandoned Mega-Machines


Mega-machines are quite simply the largest man-made mechanical objects ever built, designed to carry out tasks that even a century ago would have seemed like fantasy.  From ferrying hundreds or thousands of passengers and cargo by air and sea, clearing thousands of tons of earth with apparent ease, or transporting vast payloads bound for space, mega-machines have redefined the course of modern industry.  But when they become surplus to requirements, removing their immense bulk swiftly from the landscape becomes a task almost as challenging as their inception.  Many thus linger on abandoned for years, as illustrated by these six varied examples from around the world.

Abandoned 747 Jumbo Jet “Juan T. Trippe” Restaurant, Seoul, South Korea

(Images: Michael John Grist, reproduced with permission)

We’ve seen mighty 747s converted into backpacker hostels and even houses, but this dejected Jumbo Jet in Namyangju-Si near Seoul, South Korea, was probably the only one to become a restaurant. The second 747 ever built and the first to fly commercially, it was named after legendary airline entrepreneur and Pan American World Airways founder Juan T. Trippe. Pan Am operated the Jumbo until the airline’s collapse in 1991, after which it went to the boneyards of California to await its fate.



After a spell baking under the scorching desert sun, the mothballed jet was bought in 2001 by the owners of a noodle restaurant (located where the right wing should be!), dismantled and shipped to Korea in 62 massive containers. It was finally converted to a restaurant but the sheer cost of the project meant it was tough to turn a profit and, with much reluctance, the giant jet was abandoned. After almost a decade dominating the surrounding landscape, the 747 was finally scrapped in 2010.  Perhaps in time, the latest generation of giant airliners will also foster a new breed of abandoned aerial mega-machines.

Wreck of SS America/SS American Star, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands

(Images: Wollex, cc-sa-3.0; Johannes Göbel, cc-sa-3.0; Wollex, cc-sa-3.0; Pindakaas, cc-sa-3.0)

To many, the SS America was the most beautiful liner to fly the American flag. Designed by naval architect William Francis Gibbs and built in 1940 for the United States Line, the ship accomodated 543 passengers in cabin class, 418 in tourist class, 241 in third class, and 643 crew. Renamed USS West Point for troop transport duties during World War Two, the liner carried several names during her 54 year life including the Greek-flagged SS Australis. SS America was sold for scrap in the late 1980s but her fortunes changed when the scrappers defaulted on payment and she was then slated to become a five-star hotel ship off Phuket, Thailand, renamed American Star. But stormy weather while she was under tow to Southeast Asia in 1994 broke the tow lines and the ship ran aground off Fuerteventura in the Canary Islands.

(Image: Michael Wünsch, cc-sa-3.0)
Battered by the waves, the wreck had almost entirely collapsed into the sea by 2010. An interesting event befell SS America in 1941, when the liner carried two Nazi spies from the Duquesne Spy Ring – the largest espionage case in U.S. history – among her crew. Both men were charged by the FBI and imprisoned.

Russian Space Shuttle Transporter, Kazakhstan

(Image: unknown, sourced via Eastside Astro-Blog)
This colossal platform once transported the Russian space shuttle orbiter Buran, complete with solid rocket boosters, from the hangar assembly facility to the launch pad. But with Buran completing only one unmanned flight in 1988, it seems fair to say that the transporter has not seen much use. The Russian shuttle was destroyed when its hangar in Kazakhstan collapsed in 2002 due to poor maintenance. But although only one vehicle achieved space flight, eight full-scale test articles were built and five “space Burans” were reportedly under construction (find out more here). For now, though, this massive mega-machine that relied on several diesel trains to drag it, is going nowhere fast.

Giant Bucket-Wheel Excavator, Russia

(Images: via English Russia)
Giant bucket-wheel excavators are immense machines designed to remove thousand of tons of earth in surface mining and civil engineering projects. These industrial behemoths differ from other forms of large-scale mining equipment due to their use of a large wheel (which almost looks like a saw from a distance) containing a continuous system of buckets designed to scoop material as the wheel turns. The primary function of bucket-wheel excavators is to serve as continuous digging machines in large-scale open pit mining operations. Such objects define the term “mega-machines” and the biggest one ever built, Bagger 293, holds the record for the largest land vehicle in human history. Left to rust in a cold corner of Russia, this giant bucket-wheel excavator looks almost alien on the landscape.
Mothballed Oil (Accomodation) Rig, Belfast, Northern Ireland

You might think of them more as structures than machines per se, but oil rigs definitely fall into the mega category when it comes to size. The rig above is configured as an accomodation platform rather than an oil drilling rig, re-built in Belfast in the late 1990s. Mothballed as opposed to completely abandoned, the rig stands alongside the derelict area of the old Harland and Wolff shipyard. This patch of wasteground is probably one of the most famous in maritime history, being the construction site of the RMS Olympic and her sister ship Titanic. Today modern redevelopment is breathing new life into the area, as the Titanic Quarter rises from the birthplace of its famous namesake.  As for abandoned oil rigs, how about turning them into luxury sustainable hotels like these examples on The Design Blog.

Stranded River Princess, Goa

(Images: Vikasmta, cc-sa-3.0; Jason Turner, cc-3.0; jshyun, cc-nc-nd-3.0; pilsna, cc-nc-sa-3.0)

Hardly what the local authorities want blighting a tourist hotspot, the massive River Princess lies abandoned on Candolim Beach in Goa after it was washed-up in a fierce storm. It was said that the local government couldn’t afford the enormous cost of removing the vessel, instead leaving it to rust immediately offshore. While we urge against it, the water is apparently so shallow that it’s almost possible to wade out to the stranded ship. A massive hole cut into one side of the vessel has allowed sand and water flowing into its cavernous hull to prevent it from drifting into the busy shipping lanes. A report in the Times of India indicates that the River Princess may finally be removed.

How science will solve the mystery of Tutankhamun

New technology is helping answer the riddles in the life, and death, of the boy pharaoh. And it’s cracked other historical puzzles too…

His golden funeral mask with its striped headdress has become the symbol of Egypt’s ancient grandeur. Yet for all the fame that surrounds the boy King Tutankhamun, no one really knows who he was.

Now, the mystery of King Tut’s lineage has finally been solved. It will be revealed to the world on Wednesday, more than 30 centuries after the pharaoh was sealed in a gold coffin.

Dr Zahi Hawass, secretary general of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, will reveal the results of extensive DNA testing carried out over the past 18 months on the pharaoh’s mummy as well as two mummified foetuses found in his burial chamber.

The findings, Dr Hawass says, are the most exciting since the discovery of the tomb by the British archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922. They are also the latest in a stream of breakthroughs in our knowledge about art and the ancient world that have been made possible by new technology.

Among the outstanding riddles, for example, is whether Tutankhamun’s mother was Queen Nefertiti – whose mummy has yet to be discovered – and whether the two foetuses found with him were his children.

“We don’t know how King Tut died,” Dr Hawass said yesterday. “We have begun DNA testing and we have made some wonderful discoveries. The results have been confirmed by the Journal of the American Medical Association and they will be publishing all the findings. It is very exciting. We will know who King Tut was.”

Master of the scrolls

When Vesuvius erupted in AD79 it covered a villa in Herculaneum in feet of ash and carbon. In the 1750s tunnellers found the villa along with carbonised papyrus scrolls which disintegrated if they were opened. Now X-rays and CT (Computerised Tomography) scans of the scrolls reveal they are predominantly the work of the Epicurean philosopher and poet Philodemus of Gadara.
A genetic time machine

DNA samples have been taken from Tutankhamun and other mummies from the 18th dynasty of rulers in an attempt to establish his family lineage. While the results are being kept under wraps, the level of detail is illustrated by a 4,000-year-old clump of black hair discovered in Greenland. Analysis found that the hair belonged to a short man with brown eyes, non-white skin and “shovel-shaped” front teeth, who had an A+ blood type and probably originated in Siberia.
The X-ray that takes the lid off Vincent Van Gogh

The fluorescence synchrotron is a powerful X-ray technique that picks up the the glow from chemicals in various layers of paint. In addition to revealing an image beneath a canvas – many painters would paint over earlier works to save money – scientists can link each signal to a paint pigment and reveal hidden paintings in full colour rather than black and white. It was used on Van Gogh’s Patch of Grass to discover the face of a woman, providing better understanding of his development.

Thank heavens for Fourier and infrared spectroscopy

The Fourier transform infrared spectroscope was used to identify pigments left on ancient statues. It helped in restoring Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon in 2004 by picking up organic matter in the paint, such as wax, varnish and glue.
Lasers shed light on the inner Sphinx

The ancient Egyptian Sphinx has been laser scanned from nose to tail to create an accurate 3D computer rendering of the statue. This model is used to measure the effects of humans and nature on the Sphinx. The technique has also been used by Southampton University to create an exact model of the head of an Amazon warrior discovered at Herculaneum. The model revealed the underlying geometry and tiniest detail. New digitisation techniques helped researchers to recreate the statue’s colouring.
Every shroud…

Debate has raged for centuries over the Turin Shroud, said to be the cloth used to wrap the body of Christ, and imprinted with his image. Tests in 1980 using an electron microscope found red ochre which was said to be blood. An electron microprobe analyser proved that the image was painted. Carbon dating placed it between 1260 and 1390.
A victory for good old Raman

Essentially a laser microscope that can zoom down to 1,000th of a millimetre. The topsail from Nelson’s flagship HMS Victory is the only extant early 19th-century sail in the world. It was analysed using Raman spectroscopy in 2005, allowing conservators to re-create the sail. The technique also helped to establish that 19 Jackson Pollock drip paintings discovered in 2005 by the film-maker Alex Matter were fakes. Matter found the paintings among his deceased parent’s belongings. Pollock scholar Ellen G Landau had said they were genuine, but the Raman microscope picked up five pigments that weren’t invented until after the artist’s death.