World’s Richest Countries


If wealth is the power then Qataris have the most as Qatar is the richest country in the world. Forbes ranked the world’s richest countries based on their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year. Qatar was followed by Luxemburg and Singapore.

The list of the richest countries of the world includes:

1. Qatar:

The Persian Gulf emirate with a population of 1.7 million people ranks as the world’s richest country per capita. Thanks to a rebound in oil prices and its gigantic natural gas reserves. Adjusted for purchasing power, Qatar booked a probable gross domestic product per capita of more than $88,000 for 2010.

Qatar has the third-largest reserves of natural gas in the world, and the country has invested heavily in infrastructure to liquefy and export it and to diversify its economy. Qatar has attracted multinational financial firms to the country, as well as satellite campuses of U.S. universities. The government is pouring money into infrastructure, including a deepwater seaport, an airport and a railway network, all with an effort to make the country a better host for businesses and the 2022 World Cup.

2. Luxembourg:

The second place is taken by Luxembourg. The country has a per capita GDP on a purchasing-power parity basis of just over $81,000. Luxembourg with half a million people became a financial hub in the latter half of the 20th century, partly due to strict banking secrecy laws that earned it the reputation of a tax haven.

3. Singapore:

Singapore is the third richest country in the world. The city-state thrives as a technology, manufacturing and finance hub with a GDP (PPP) per capita of nearly $56,700.

The country has one of the highest per-capita GDP in the world. In addition, its port infrastructure and skilled workforce, which is due to the success of the country’s education policy in producing skilled workers, is also essential in this aspect as they provide easier access to markets for both importing and exporting, and also provide the skills needed to refine imports into exports.

4. Norway:

Norway ranks fourth on the list. Norway’s petroleum accounts for nearly half of exports and over 30 percent of state revenue. It is the main contributor to its PPP-adjusted GDP per capita of nearly $52,000.

The country is also one of the largest gas exporters of the world. Shipping has also long been a support of Norway’s export sector, but much of the country’s economic growth has been fueled by an abundance of natural resources, including petroleum exploration and production, hydroelectric power, and fisheries. Norway has a very high standard of living compared to other European countries and has a strongly integrated welfare system. Norway is the world’s second-largest gas exporter and its position as an oil exporter has slipped to ninth-largest.

5. Brunei:

Brunei is the fifth wealthiest country in the world. It has a GDP (PPP) per capita of about $48,300. The country is rich due to its extensive petroleum and natural gas fields.

Brunei Darussalam‘s economy has been dominated by the oil and gas industry for the past 80 years, and the hydrocarbon resources account for over 90 percent of its exports and more than half it’s GDP. The country currently has the second highest GDP per capita in the Southeast Asian region and is the fourth largest oil producer in the region and ninth largest exporter of liquefied natural gas in the world.

6. United Arab Emirates:

The United Arab Emirates took the sixth position on the list. UAE looks to its oil and gas for about 25 percent of its GDP, which is nearly $47,500 per capita (PPP).

Though the UAE is becoming less dependent on natural resources as a source of revenue, petroleum and natural gas exports still play an important role in the economy, especially in Abu Dhabi. A gigantic construction boom, an expanding manufacturing base, and a thriving services sector are helping the UAE diversify its economy.

7. United States of America:

United States is the seventh wealthiest country in the world. The country has a per capita GDP on a purchasing-power parity basis of just over $46,000. The U.S. is the largest trading nation in the world and its three largest trading partners as of 2010 are Canada, China and Mexico. The country has maintained a stable overall GDP growth rate, a moderate unemployment rate, and high levels of research and capital investment.

The U.S.A remains the world’s largest manufacturer, representing a fifth of the worldwide manufacturing output. Of the world’s 500 largest companies, 133 are headquartered in the United States. It is also one of the world’s largest and most influential financial markets.

8. Hong Kong:

Hong Kong is the eighth richest country in the world.  The country is dependent on international trade and finance. The GDP (PPP) per capita of Hong Kong is estimated to be $45,944.

As one of the world’s leading international financial centers, the country has a major capitalist service economy characterized by low taxation and free trade. Hong Kong’s economic strengths include a sound banking system, virtually no public debt, a strong legal system, ample foreign exchange reserves and rigorous anti-corruption measures.

9. Switzerland:

Switzerland ranks ninth on the list. The GDP (PPP) per capita of the country is $41,950. The country has one of the world’s most stable economies.

The country’s policy of long-term monetary security and political stability has made Switzerland a safe haven for investors, creating an economy that is increasingly dependent on a steady tide of foreign investment. Due to the country’s small size and high labor specialization, industry and trade are the keys to Switzerland’s economic livelihood. The country has achieved one of the highest per capita incomes in the world with low unemployment rates and a balanced budget.

10. Netherlands:

Netherlands is the tenth wealthiest country in the world. The GDP (PPP) per capita of the country is over $40,900. The country’s main industries include agriculture, metal, and engineering products.

The country’s government plays a very active role in maintaining a high standard of living for its citizens. Unemployment is also low because thousands of people have simply dropped out of the labor force and are living on government benefits. The country is a model of liberal social policy and lenient economics.

Australia ranked eleventh on the list of the world’s richest countries while Austria ranked twelfth. Ireland, Canada and Kuwait took the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth position respectively.

Ayurvedic Care for Hair Problems


 

 

 

                                            Ayurvedic Hair treatment

Good hair care begins at home itself. You should follow simple routines like combing

, brushing, shampooing and the likes. However, if that doesn’t help you and you still keep experiencing the same problems it’s time you tried the Ayurvedic hair care routine! 

Aside from reviving the health of your hair, one very important advantage of using Ayurveda is that it helps you avoid the chemical based treatments that end up affecting your health in the long run.  

Ayurvedic treatments are cost effective and quite easy to follow. More over, they can be homemade and prove very effectual in maintaining hair quality- be it color, luster, strength or longevity. Let us check out a few of these medicinal marvels that have worked wonders on so many people. 

For Hair Loss 

This is a very common problem amongst men and happens most due to anxiety, stress and improper dietary habits. To reduce hair loss,  

Massage your hair with aroma oils at least once every week. Rosemary and Titri oil are excellent substitutions.    

• Amla oil that is actually made by boiling dried Amla seeds in coconut oil is very effective hair tonic. Use it to prevent hair fall and augment the growth of your hair. Watch this useful video that demonstrates how to prepare a simple but effective Ayurvedic hair cleanser using Amla oil that you can make right at home.

• You can also try rinsing your hair with neem water. To prepare that, just boil neem leaves in water for a while and then cool it.                              

• Another option is to massaging your scalp with almond or coconut oil daily for 10 to 15 minutes.  

For Dandruff

A highly useful technique in combating dandruff through Ayurveda is by use of Fenugreek or methi. Soak methi seeds overnight in water to soften them. Ground it into a fine paste the next morning and massage your scalp thoroughly for about half an hour. Wash it off with water. 

• Dried peels of lemon and orange are easily obtainable. Soak them in water overnight and wash your hair with it. It not only removes dandruff but also softens your hair.  

• Finally, you can also make a mixture of 1 teaspoon of camphor and a half cup of coconut oil and massage it on your scalp before bed every night. 

Premature graying of Hair  

Graying of hair is a normal process that comes with age but when it starts as early as in your thirties, it is something to be concerned about. Ayurvedic recommendations have gone a long way towards helping people prevent it.

• Herbal oil mixed with bhringaraj, vibhitaki, and neela must be applied on the scalp which is very effective against premature graying.

• You can also opt for grated ginger mixed with honey. Store it in a container and eat 1 tea-spoon daily.

Keeping your hair healthy by taking a balanced diet

Most of the problems related to hair crop up from improper intake of nutrition. So it is imperative that you change your diet if you experience hair issues. For example, in case of hair loss, increase your vegetable intake. Eat lots of salads, fruits and milk in your diet. Ayurveda recommends that instead of focusing on one specific nutrient, your diet should consist of a combination of natural and healthy food. This allows a variety of nutrients to nourish your hair. Include lots of fruits in your daily diet and milk products are especially nourishing for the hair.

Use the information provided here to improve the quality of your hair and give your confidence the much needed boost. With right care and interest you can prevent your hair from damage and bring back the old vitality in them.

 

 

The Man Behind Rahul Gandhi


The Man Behind Rahul Gandhi

 ‘Behind every successful man is a woman’. But in certain cases, behind successful men are other men. If you do not have any clue as to who is working hard for Rahul Gandhi UP campaign, then read on.

Kanishka Singh, a 34-old young man is the man behind Rahul’s campaigns in UP a success. He is his chief strategist for the UP polls. Prior to this Kanishka has worked with Sheila Dixit in the run-up to Delhi’s assembly elections in 2003. A great hush-hush was created with his column, “Why Sonia is Like John Kerry” in outlook magazine, as it argued polls in India and the U.S.

Today if someone claims to be familiar to the Grand Old Party, they know Singh too. Call him a close adviser, confidant, guide or gatekeeper to Rahul Gandhi, if meeting Gandhi is what you looking up for, then there is no better way to ask Kanishka for an appointment.

Holding a MBA degree from Wharton School, Kaniska is busy overlooking the folks who run spread sheets and numbers at Rahul’s Tughlak lane home-office. A Congressman familiar to both Gandhi and Singh said, “Rahul doesn’t want woolly, gut-feel political hunches. He wants numbers, percentages, and Kanishka gets the data and analyses it for him. Both are analytical, it’s a good fit,” as reported by The Economic Times.

Kanishka and his team are burning their sweat out months before the dates for polls in Uttar Pradesh were announced by the Election Commission. Singh these days is working hard on plotting strategies and sifting through the possible names for the candidates. Singh said, “Once we know our rivals’ moves, we can plan ours better. It’s simple game theory.”

The Man Behind Rahul Gandhi

As Kanishka has an experience of working in the U.S. with investment bank Lazard Freres, he plans to implement some the best practices in his work. There are many members in the party that tend to mock at some of his practice but then it is very limited. Being with Gandhi 24/7 and working for him is not a easy task, it can take a toll anytime, he is playing a gamble, which would pay off amply if worked out well.

The long working hours explains Singh’s stubble and crumpled very well as he makes an appearance just behind Gandhi at a rally at southern UP. A bespectacled figure looking younger than his age is one who can be easily overlooked. Being polite all the time he speaks, “By the end of campaigning Rahul would have done 200 public meetings. That’s one rally for every two assembly seats.”

You can find him busy looking into his spreadsheets and arranging people who can be available for the campaign. In one of the recent rallies, a Congress MP from UP approaches him to have Raj Babbar as a star speaker. Kanishka glares at the spread sheets in his Black Berry and assured Raj Babbar or Azharuddin to be one of the star speakers.

With so much happening around, the younger son of diplomat Shailendra Kumar Singh who died in office as governor of Rajasthan in 2009 is left with no time for social life. But what probably drives him is the sheer feeling of being able to make a difference. In his article for Seminar Magazine called “Dreaming of India in 2010″, he predicted that both the Congress and the BJP would renovate their elderly leaderships by 2010.

 
 

How Induction Cooking Works


How Induction Cooking Works

Here’s the Basic Idea:

“Cooking” is the application of heat to food. Indoor cooking is almost entirely done either in an oven or on a cooktop of some sort, though occasionally a grill or griddle is used.Cooktops–which may be part of a range/oven combination or independent built-in units (and which are known outside the U.S.A. as “hobs”)–are commonly considered to be broadly divided into gas and electric types, but that is an unfortunate oversimplification.In reality, there are several very different methods of “electric” heating, which have little in common save that their energy input is electricity. Such methods include, among others, coil elements (the most common and familiar kind of “electric” cooker), halogen heaters, and induction. Further complicating the issue is the sad habit of referring to several very different kinds of electric cookers collectively as “smoothtops,” even though there can be wildly different heat sources under those smooth, glassy tops.

As we said, cooking is the application of heat to food. Food being prepared in the home is very rarely if ever cooked on a rangetop except in or on a cooking vessel of some sort–pot, pan, whatever. Thus, the job of the cooker is not to heat the food but to heat the cooking vessel–which in turn heats and cooks the food. That not only allows the convenient holding of the food–which may be a liquid–it also allows, when we want it, a more gradual or more uniform application of heat to the food by proper design of the cooking vessel.

Cooking has therefore always consisted in generating substantial heat in a way and place that makes it easy to transfer most of that heat to a conveniently placed cooking vessel. Starting from the open fire, mankind has evolved many ways to generate such heat. The two basic methods in modern times have been the chemical and the electrical: one either burns some combustible substance–such as wood, coal, or gas–or one runs an electrical current through a resistance element (that, for instance, is how toasters work), whether in a “coil” or, more recently, inside a halogen-filled bulb.

Induction is a third method, completely different from all other cooking technologies–
it does not involve generating heat which is then transferred to the cooking vessel,
it makes the cooking vessel itself the original generator of the cooking heat.

(Microwaving, an oven-only technology, is a fourth method, wherein the heat is generated directly in the food itself.)

How does an induction cooker do that?

Put simply, an induction-cooker element (what on a gas stove would be called a “burner”) is a powerful, high-frequency electromagnet, with the electromagnetism generated by sophisticated electronics in the “element” under the unit’s ceramic surface. When a good-sized piece of magnetic material–such as, for example, a cast-iron skillet–is placed in the magnetic field that the element is generating, the field transfers (“induces”) energy into that metal. That transferred energy causes the metal–the cooking vessel–to become hot. By controlling the strength of the electromagnetic field, we can control the amount of heat being generated in the cooking vessel–and we can change that amount instantaneously.

(To be technical, the field generates a loop current–a flow of electricity–within the metal of which the pot or pan is made, and that current flow through the resistance of the metal generates heat, just as current flowing through the resistance element of a conventional electric range’s coil generates heat; the difference is that here, the heat is generated directly in the pot or pan itself, not in any part of the cooker.)

How Induction Cooking Works:

The element’s electronics power a coil (the red lines) that produces a high-frequency electromagnetic field (represented by the orange lines).

That field penetrates the metal of the ferrous (magnetic-material) cooking vessel and sets up a circulating electric current, which generates heat. (But see the note below.)

The heat generated in the cooking vessel is transferred to the vessel’s contents.

Nothing outside the vessel is affected by the field–as soon as the vessel is removed from the element, or the element turned off, heat generation stops.

(Image courtesy of Induction Cooking World)

(Note: the process described at #2 above is called an “eddy current”; heat is also generated by another process called “hysteresis”, which is the resistance of the ferrous material to rapid changes in magnetization. The relative contributions of the two effects is highly technical, with some sources emphasizing one and some the other–but the general idea is unaffected: the heat is generated in the cookware.

There is thus one point about induction: with current technology, induction cookers require that all your countertop cooking vessels be of a “ferrous” metal (one, such as iron, that will readily sustain a magnetic field). Materials like aluminum, copper, and pyrex are not usable on an induction cooker. But all that means is that you need iron or steel pots and pans. And that is no drawback in absolute terms, for it includes the best kinds of cookware in the world–every top line is full of cookware of all sizes and shapes suitable for use on induction cookers (and virtually all of the lines will boast of it, because induction is so popular with discerning cooks). Nor do you have to go to top-of-the-line names like All-Clad or Le Creuset, for many very reasonably priced cookware lines are also perfectly suited for induction cooking. But if you are considering induction and have a lot invested, literally or emotionally, in non-ferrous cookware, you do need to know the facts. (Check out our page on Induction Cookware.)

(And there are now available so-called “inductions disks” that will allow non-ferrous cookware to be used on an induction element; using such a disk loses many of the advantages of induction–from high efficiency to no waste heat–but those who want or need, say, a glass/pyrex or ceramic pot for some special use, it is possible to use it on an induction cooktop with such a disk.)On the horizon is newer technology that will apparently work with any metal cooking vessel, including copper and aluminum, but that technology–though already being used in a few units of Japanese manufacture–is probably quite a few years away from maturity and from inclusion in most induction cookers. If you are interested in a new cooktop, it is, in our judgement, not worth waiting for that technology.

(The trick seems to be using a significantly high-frequency field, which is able to induce a current in any metal; ceramic and glass, however, would still be out of the running for cookware even when this new technology arrives–if it ever does.)There is also now the first of the new generation of “zoneless” induction cooktops. These essentially make the entire surface of the unit into a cooking area: sensors under the glass detect not only the presence of a pot or pan or whatever, but its size and placement–and then energize only those mini-elements directly under the cooking vessel. You can thus put any size or shape of vessel–from a small, traditional round pot to a gigantic griddle or grill–down anywhere, in any alignment, and the unit will heat it, and only it (or, of course, seveal “its”, as may be).Quoting AEG’s brochure: “The hob senses the size of the pan and only heats the exact area covered by the pan. The Maxi-sense range [uses] ‘flexible sections’ to create an all-over cooking surface. Pans can be placed anywhere on the hob as long as the section marker is covered, eliminating the restriction of traditional specific zones [ = elements]. It does not matter how many pans you have or what size they are, whether it is a fish kettle, a small milk pan, or tagine . . . .”

This technology has only been around since about 2006, and in fairness it must be said that early reports on the prototypes were not all that one might have hoped for; De Dietrich, which is to say the Fagor Group, led then, but the prototype as distributed for testing had problems remembering where things were if they were moved about any, and also with uniform heating. Presumably, the engineers learned from what they heard, because such units are now in production and available (sort of–see the note below). We see, though, that Electrolux is into this technology in a substantial way in some of their induction lines, such as AEG. De Dietrich calls it “Continuum”, AEG calls it “Maxi-sense” (as seen at the left). One supposes that soon everyone will have it; we feel it is clearly the future of induction, which in a way is to say the future of cooking, for it won’t be so long now before gas for cooking is looked back at in the same way we today look back on coal and wood.

The only lines we know of with this technology are Fagor’s De Dietrich–its premium, “upmarket” line–and Electrolux’s AEG, neither of which is regularly distributed in North America; there is, however, one distributor in Canada–who apparently also ships to the U.S.–who handles some parts of the AEG line, parts which just recently expanded from two induction units to three, the new one being one of AEG’s “zoneless” types, though one of only 6.9 kW total and three zones (yes, Virginia, even “zoneless” units have zones) and a somewhat strange profile, wide but shallow. We have no pricing or availability data.

There is also now such a thing as an induction oven. (It looks as if the usual heating coil on the base of the oven has been replaced by a ferrous plate, which is energized to heat by embedded induction coils beneath it–so any sort of bakeware will work in it.) Expect to see more such things before long.

First, let’s define some terms. Energy is a quantity: it’s like a gallon of water. In cooking, we aren’t really concerned with actual energy–we want to know at what rate a cooking appliance can supply energy. It’s like, say, a garden hose: if it can only produce a dribble of water, it doesn’t matter to us that if we let it run day and night we could eventually fill many buckets. What we want to know is how forcefully that hose can spray–how many gallons a minute it can put out–because that’s what does useful things for us in some reasonable amount of time.

So, in discussing cooking appliances, we normally talk about energy flow rates, which are just like the water flow rates expressed in “gallons a minute”–that is, we want to be able to know at what rate we can pump heat into the cooking process. For gas, energy content (quantity) is traditionally measured in “British Thermal Units” (BTU), and so the flow rate of gas energy is given in BTU/hour. For electricity, energy content is normally measured as “kilowatt-hours” (kWh) and the flow rate is just kilowatts (kW).

(Let’s restate that, because it often confuses people, being sort of “upside down”. A kilowatt is not a quantity, it’s a rate, like “knots” to measure speed at sea–there are no “knots an hour”, knots are the speed, and kilowatts are the electrical energy-flow rate. To measure total energy–as, for instance, your electric-supply company does, to know how much to bill you–we multiply the flow rate, kilowatts, by the time the flow ran, hours, to get “kilowatt-hours” of energy. So BTU/hour and kilowatts are both measures of energy flow rates, not of energy itself.)

The energy in gas and the energy in electricity just happen to be measured in different-sized numbers, but they’re measuring the same thing. It’s like miles vs. kilometers: we can say a place is about 5 kilometers away, or that it’s a little over 3 miles away, but the actual distance we’d have to walk or drive is the same. We can easily convert from miles to kilometers if we know how many of one make up the other. Likewise, we can easily convert from BTU/hour to kilowatts (or vice-versa). There are just about 3,400 BTU to a kWh–or, more exactly, about 3,413. (Keep in mind that a kilowatt is 1,000 watts: 1 kW = 1000 W).


Superficially, then, comparing cooking technologies looks easy: can’t we just look at the rated kW or BTU/hour of a cooktop, and simply convert one kind of measure to the other to compare them? Nope. The complication is that the various technologies are not all equally effective at converting their energy content into cooking heat; for example, gas delivers little more than a third of its total energy to the actual cooking process, while induction delivers about 85 to 90 percent of its energy.

That means that if we have a gas cooker capable of putting out X BTU/hour, converting that X to kilowatts does not tell the story–because a lot more of that X is wasted energy that doesn’t do any cooking than is the case with induction. To truly compare the cooking power of a gas cooker and an induction cooker, we indeed need to first convert one measure to the other, say BTU/hour to kilowatts; but we then need to slice off from each unit’s nominal output the amount that does not get used for cooking.

(Think again of garden hoses: if we have two hoses and each is getting, say, 5 gallons a minute pumped into it by the water tap it’s screwed onto, are they the same? Not if one has a pinhole leak while the other has a gaping rip. The amount of water that comes out the nozzle to do whatever we need done will differ drastically from one to the other. Induction cooking has a pinhole leak, maybe 10% to 15% of the raw energy it takes being wasted; gas cooking has the whacking great rip in it, the average unit wasting over 60% of the raw energy it consumes.)

So, to see how induction compares to its only real rival, gas, we have to make the following calculation:

BTU/hour = kW x 3413 x Eind/Egas

That last term there–Eind/Egas–is simply the ratio of the two methods’ real efficiencies: Eind is the energy efficiency of a typical induction cooker and Egas is the energy efficiency of a typical quality gas cooker.
abstract mathematics design

The snag comes when we try to find reliable figures for those efficiencies. It is remarkable how much misinformation there is (especially on the internet), largely from well-meaning but ignorant sources who do not understand the issues, or are simply repeating what they read elsewhere (from someone else who does not understand the issues). For example, the energy-efficiency values quoted by various induction-cooker makers range from a low of 83% to a high of 90%, while values given for gas cooking run, depending on the source, from 55% down to as little as 30%, nearly a 2:1 ratio.

Fortunately, in the last few years some standardized data from disinterested sources have become available, so we no longer have to rely on figures from parties with an axe to grind. The U.S. Department of Energy has established that the typical efficiency of induction cooktops is 84%, while that of gas cooktops is 40% (more exactly, 39.9%)–figures right in line with the range of claims made for each, and thus quite believable.

Using those values (and sparing you the in-between steps), we can say that gas-cooker BTU/hour figures equivalent to induction-cooker wattages can be reckoned as:

BTU/hour = kW x 7185

It is worth noting that the testing method that established the induction data used, in essence, a slab of ferrous metal as the “vessel”. It reliably established what might be called a “baseline” efficiency, and that is why we use it throughout in evaluating energy equivalencies. It remains as a possibility that particular items of induction equipment–and, for that matter, of cookware–may be a bit more or less efficient than the baseline. There are at least plausible reports that some makes, coupled with some items of cookware, can achieve true efficiences close to 90%. On this site, we do not use that value because we do not yet know of any definite, reliable data, but you should keep it clear in your mind that when we discuss the gas heating-power equivalencies of induction units, we are using what should be considered rather conservative numbers; chances are that many induction units are actually somewhat more powerful (in BTU/hour equivalents) than we set forth.

In fact, Panasonic states for several of its units that efficiency is 90%, noting that: Heating-efficiency measurements were taken based on standards of the Japanese Electrical Manufacturers’ Association and using a Panasonic standard enamelled iron pot. Also: a University of Hong Kong research product showed induction efficiencies from 83.3% to 87.9%, numbers clearly in line with 84% as a minimum and 90% as possible.

So How Much Power Is What?

Perhaps the most useful way to use that conversion datum is to see what good gas-cooker BTU values are and work back to what induction-cooker kW values would have to be to correspond. But what are good gas-cooker BTU values? Here too, opinions will vary. As a sort of baseline, we can look at what typical mid-line gas ranges look like. As numerous sources report, a typical “ordinary” home gas range will usually have its burners in these power ranges, give or take only a little: a small burner of about 5,000 Btu/hour; two medium-level burners of about 9,000 Btu/hour; and (depending on width, 30 inches or 36 inches) either one or two large burners of anywhere from 12,000 to 16,000 BTU/hour
woman cooking over open fire

When one moves from stock home appliances up to the deluxe level (sometimes called “pro”, though ironically the warranties for such units expressly forbid commercial use), gas ranges and cooktops naturally become more powerful. On these, burner powers run up to 18,000 BTU/hour or thereabouts (one highly regarded specimen of this class has four 15,000-BTU/hour burners and two 18,000-BTU/hour burners). One expert source remarked of such gear: Most commercial-style home ranges offer 15,000 BTUs per burner, which is perfectly adequate for most at-home cooks. You won’t always need all that heat, but if you want to caramelize a bell pepper in seconds, or blacken a redfish like a pro, well, you’ll need all the heat you can get. My advice: Go for the big-time BTUs (which, in the tests he was discussing, was that 18,000 BTU/hour level).

So let’s summarize by showing representative gas-power levels and their induction-power equivalents (remember, calculated quite conservatively):

Typical home stove:
small: 5,000 BTU/hour gas = 0.70 kW induction
medium: 9,000 BTU/hour gas = 1.25 kW induction
large: 12,000 BTU/hour gas = 1.70 kW induction; or 15,000 BTU/hour gas = 2.10 kW induction

Typical “pro style” stove:
medium: 15,000 BTU/hour gas = 2.10 kW induction
large: 18,000 BTU/hour gas = 2.50 kW induction

(Even for wok cooking, the most power-hungry kind there is, experts consider 10,000 BTU/hour good and 12,000 BTU/hour “hot”.)

So how do actual real-world, on-the-market induction cooktops stack up against gas?

It’s an almost comic mismatch. Sticking to build-in units (as opposed to little free-standing countertop convenience units), it is difficult, perhaps by now impossible, to find a unit with any element having less than 1.2 kW power–which puts the smallest induction element to be found equal to the average “medium” burner on a gas stove. The least-expensive 30-inch (four-element) induction cooktop has:

a 1.3-kW small element (between 9,000 and 9,500 BTU/hour),
two elements of 1.85 kW each (well over 13,000 BTU/hour), and
one element of 2.4 kW (over 17,000 BTU/hour).

The least-expensive 36-inch (five-element) induction cooktop has:

a 1.2-kW small element (8,500 BTU/hour),
a medium element of 1.8 kW (13,000 BTU/hour),
a larger element of 2.2 kW (16,000 BTU/hour),
and two elements of 2.4 kW (over 17,000 BTU/hour).

The very highest-power gas burner to be found in the residential market is 22,000 BTU/hour, and that’s a sort of freak monster, whereas a 3.6-kW and 3.7-kW element–which is around 26,000 BTU/hour of gas!–is found in many induction cooktops. (Moreover, the elements on some induction units can share power with one another, so that if not every element is already in use, a given one can be “boosted” beyond its normal power level, for uses such as bringing a large pot of water to a boil, or pre-heating a fry skillet.)

So, in sum, induction is not “as powerful as gas”–it’s miles ahead.

(There is, incidentally, a lesson there: even really serious cooking does not, save for perhaps a few specialty cases, require stupendous amounts of power, and you should not be seduced into choosing between units sheerly on the basis of the maximum available firepower per element. For one thing, most units of the same size have total maximum unit capabilities that are nearly identical: the differences lie in how they distribute that total among the unit’s elements, which are invariably four on a 30-inch-wide unit and five on a 36- inch-wide unit. When a pro tells you that really “big-time” power is the equivalent of around 2.5 kW of induction, you should ask yourself whether getting elements with significantly more power than that really should be a major consideration in your decision-making process.)

(There is a much more substantial discussion, which we strenuously recommend anyone at all interested in induction-cooking equipment read, on our site page titled Kitchen Electricity 101).

So now that you know how induction works, and how–at least in raw cooking power–it compares with gas, let’s go on to examine in more detail all the Pros and Cons of Induction Cooking.

Awesome Ways to Propose your Girl



You’ve met the girl of your dreams, you are truly, madly, deeply in love with her and you cannot wait to pop the question.

But what is stopping you is the fact that you have no idea HOW to propose to her.

If the above is the situation you find yourself in, then this article is written just for you. After much deliberation I have come up with a list of the 7 Most Amazing Ways in which you can Propose to your girl. I hope you find one that you can recreate and get your girl to say yes!

1. Design a web page

This one is an out-of-the-box method quite in sync with today’s technology driven world. Get a web designer to design a web page for you which consists of your photos together, maybe a poem you’ve dedicated to her, the imagery of a place you want to or have gone together to and the works. Create an online memoir which will remind her of all the wonderful things you’ll have done together and why you are THE ONE for her. Send her the link to the page once it’s ready and await her positive reply.

2. A one-day picnic

Go away for a one day picnic. Start with a romantic early morning drive to eventually go to a fun / adventurous theme park or a romantic resort – whichever setting she’d prefer. Spend quality time with her away from the mad rush of the city and be extra kind, loving and generous to her. Today is the day you got to let the love flow freely and let her know just how much you love her. On the drive back halt the car at a random location and completely out of nowhere flash the ring. She will be surprised to say the least and will be too delighted to say anything but a yes!

3. Gather family / friends for dinner

One way to seal the deal is to do it in the presence of loved ones. Show your ‘homely good boy’ side by organising and hosting a dinner for family and friends. You don’t have to necessarily tell them the reason behind this get together. When you are sure that no one is in on your plan, and you find everyone immersed in conversation & having a gala time, grab their attention and pop the question. Surprise them, surprise her and what will follow is a flurry of emotions, hugs, tears and congratulations!

4. A ‘proposal’ hunt

Get creative and adventurous by planning a ‘proposal’ hunt. Plan your clues in advance and let one clue led to another till the last one finally leads to you standing there with a ring in one hand and a rose in the other. Once the preparations are in order, drop the first clue on her like a bomb and keep at it till she reaches her destination – YOU! Don’t make the hunt too long or complicated, as she might lose interest. Keep it simple and patiently wait for her to accept the ring and fall in your arms.

5. Do a Chandler!

All F.R.I.E.N.D.S. aficionados will know how Chandler wanted to propose to Monica. Lead her to believe that you don’t want to get married anytime soon, that in fact you are beginning to question the institution itself and that you probably would never want to get married. Lead her astray so that she is saddened by your confessions but not completely disheartened. Play along for a day or two, and then the following night decorate her room with candles, balloons and keep champagne at ready. Once she walks in, get down on one knee and propose. She will be surprised, shocked, teary eyed and very very happy all at once.

6. Dinner / Romance / Wine

Though done time and again, this one never goes out of fashion. Plan a romantic evening with her. Book a table at an expensive restaurant, order the best wine, and arrange for live romantic music to be played. Ask her for a dance before the main course arrives and pop the question. The ambiance thus created should be such that she simply cannot refuse.

7. Heartfelt words

If you have decent writing skills then write poems for her. Send her one poem and a bouquet of flowers each day of the week and with each passing day let the romance build. On the 7th day, meet her in person and hand her a bouquet. Then talk freely & express your true emotions for her. Tell her how happy she would make you by agreeing to your proposal and how ‘she completes you’. Use words as your weapon of choice and slay her with your wit, charm and honesty. She simply won’t be able to refuse.

Hope these suggestions have eased your dilemma. Use one of these ideas and ask your girl out and she will surely yes!

360° PANARAMIC VIEW OF SRILANKA


PANORAMIC 360° DEGREE VIEWS OF


LANDSCAPES IN SHRI LANKA

http://www.ocholeguas.com/en_360/2011/09/sri_lanka/2/2.html