Worst Ways to Make Money


1. Day Trading

Let’s face it. We all start day-dreaming at the very mention of investing and float into a fantasy world where we are as rich as Warren Buffet. As day-trading is perhaps the shortest time duration to get returns on an invested amount, newbie investors might be tempted to jump right into it. But beware – you will earn way lesser from day trading than investing for about a year. Not only does this job rob you of peace of mind and sleep but also does not guarantee a positive return on your investment at the end of the day.

2. Flipping Real Estate

Let’s understand flipping real estate before delving further into it. Real estate flipping is when you buy at a lesser price and sell at a higher one or buy a house, repair it and then resell it. Real estate is among the very green and fertile areas of investment but this particular mode of action is not. Real estate flipping is a profitable option only when you will be able to charge a bit more for the house, indicating profits. However, if the prices of houses are sliding anyway, you won’t be able to get a good bargain, even if you’ve spent a fortune on it.

3. Trading Foreign Currency

Trading and investing is a turbulent world anyway and trading foreign currencies is an additional bad option. Trading has more of cons than pros, especially if you are a new investor. If you are unaware of the nitty-gritty’s of investing, you are bound to fall hard. Trading foreign currencies can be a great investment option but only if you are loaded with money and have experience. If you are new to this, you will be playing against experienced big shots, who might even play dirty. Moreover, this is one area which is abundant in frauds and scams.

4. Online Surveys

With the advent of the internet revolution has come one hidden nuisance – online surveys. To some, online surveys are great ways to collect primary genuine data, while to some – it is a clever way of collecting private information and misusing it. Whatever may b e the case, participating in online surveys is not a very profitable idea. Apart from sheer monotony of the job, such portals do not pay great money too. If you were thinking of asking for a raise to do this job, remember that someone out there will do it at a lesser money than you.

5. High-yield Investment Opportunities

If you’ve ever thought of a clever idea to make honest money, there are millions out there who have deceptive ways of earning way more money. Enticing people with high-yield investment schemes is just another scheme to cheat people. We have encountered one or more of such ponzi schemes in our lives and have seen the ugly consequences. Apart from its illegal status, such investment opportunities are nothing more than a pain for the common man. There are plenty more ways to make easy money without having to resort to illegal means. So, Google a few such ones.

6. Online Gaming

All the guys out there would find this job to be more than rewarding – playing online games all day long and getting paid for it that too. But if you fall in this category, then it’s time to come out of it. You might be the gaming champion in your guys’ circle but never forget that there will always be a teen who is quicker and better than you. The online gaming industry is witnessing a huge growth spurt and there are more than willing candidates who will play their favourite online games at low pays. So, make up your mind and play online games for fun and not money.

7. Blogging

Surprise surprise. Contrary to popular belief, blogging does not help you earn oodles of money. This phenomenon has been hyped too much and blown out of proportion to a large extent. Blogging will help you earn money to an extent but not make you rich overnight. Regular blogs earn money by putting up likable content and gaining audience popularity. But this takes time and does not pay well either. Professional blogs, on the other hand hire experts to write for them and get tons of money from advertising. So, if blogging is your passion and not pay, then continue with it.

8. Gambling

Gambling has been the bane of our society since the beginning of time. As people have been gambling with more than just money, gambling with money seems to have become a part of human culture. Apart from an obvious horrid habit, gambling is considered an easy way of making big money. Unless you are not a victim of rigged dices and plain bad luck, you just might make a small fortune. But chances are that you will lose more money than earn it. So, choice is yours – crack the ‘Teen Patti’ mathematics code or get super concentration like Mahowny.

9. Paid Medical Testing

Man rules when it comes to testing on living beings, including its own kind. Science and testing has tempted man to go beyond the ordinary for ages, even if it means sacrificing a few lives in the process. Paid medical testing is not like the other contenders on this list. It is utterly legal and pays quite handsomely but there is one very big catch in it. It requires you to sign an obligatory contract which actually allows medical professional to test experimental drugs on you. It even makes you nod hesitatingly to bear all associated side-effects of the new drugs. Death too is mentioned among them, apart from seizures and vomiting. So, pick your experimenters wisely.


Heaviest Drinking Countries

Alcohol is one thing common in every part of the world. While, there are few countries that drink socially, there are also countries that ritually binge drink. Here are the countries where alcoholic drinks are most consumed.


Citizens of the tiny, post-Soviet republic of Moldova are the world’s biggest drinkers with the average Moldovan consuming 18.22 liters of alcohol annually. The country consumes the highest amount of alcohol per capita in the world. Moldovans drink nearly three times the global average of 6.1 litres per individual per year. Much of their consumption is made up by the “unrecorded” drinking of bootleg alcohol. The nation is a major wine producer, with several people drinking cheap homemade wine, vodka and other spirits. The other popular alcoholic beverages are divin (Moldovan brandy), beer, and local wine.

Czech Republic:

Czech Republic is the second heaviest drinking country. The country has an annual per capita alcohol consumption of 16.45 litres. The country is well known for its beer brewing and beer guzzling heritage. Beer is consumed the most in Czech Republic, followed by other spirits and wine. Since the 1930s the Czechs have been well-known for the quality of their brewing process, which traditionally includes open fermenters, long lagering times and no pasteurization. Lagers and pilsners from the Czech Republic remain a few of the world’s finest beer.


Third on the list is Hungary with an annual per capita alcohol consumption of 16.27 liters.  Wine is consumed the most in Hungary, followed by beer and other spirits. The country is considered ideal for wine-making. Hungarian wine regions offer a great assortment of style. The most well-known wines from Hungary are Tokaji Aszú and Egri Bikavér.


Russia is the fourth heaviest drinking country. The country has an annual per capita alcohol consumption of 15.76 litres. Vodka is a Russian word and certainly the famous drink in the country. Russian vodka drinkers shoot their vodka straight up, although some prefer beer too. Russians consume 32 pints of pure alcohol per capita every year.


Ukraine takes the fifth position on the list. The annual per capita alcohol consumption of the country is 15.60 litres. Ukraine is known for its extensive alcoholism and is home to risky drinking.


Estonia is the sixth country with big drinkers. The annual per capita alcohol consumption is 15.57 litres. Spirits, beer and wine are typically consumed by the Estonians. The daily alcohol intake is higher in the country.


Andorra takes the seventh position on the list with an annual per capita alcohol consumption of 15.48 litres. Andorra is one of the smallest landlocked countries in Europe. It is a country where alcohol consumption is very high. It has a recorded consumption of 14.08 litres and an unrecorded consumption of 1.4 litres. The most consumed type of alcoholic drink in Andorra is wine followed by beer and spirits.


Romania is the eighth drunkest country. The annual per capita alcohol consumption of Romania is 15.30 litres. ?uic? is a strong plum brandy that is widely regarded as the country’s traditional alcoholic drink, along with wine. Wine, yet, is the preferred drink, and Romanian wines have a tradition of over three millennia. The country is currently the world’s ninth largest wine producer.


Slovenia takes the ninth position on the list. The annual per capita alcohol consumption of the country is 15.19 litres. In Slovenia, per capita consumption of alcohol is mainly characterized by consumption of wine and beer. The hills around Slovenia’s second-largest town, Maribor, are well-known for their wine-making.


Belarus rounds off the tenth position on the list. It has an annual per capita alcohol consumption of 15.13 litres. Most of the alcohol in Belarus is consumed in the form of spirits. The government of Belarus continues to tackle the problem of excessive alcohol consumption in the country.

Ten Things You Should Never Do In India


India is a land of enormous internal diversity. On your journey from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, the cultures and things you encounter are lot more diverse and complicated than you think. There are many actions which seem to be normal to you but are extremely offensive in certain areas. Here we list ten things which is considered as offensive or bad throughout the country.

Religious discussions


You can freely discuss about anything in India, especially politics. Most people will have an opinion but they will not mind their opinion being contradicted. But be careful while including the religion into any of your discussions especially with the strangers since it is one of the sensitive areas in the minds of Indian people and they will feel offended for no reason!

Public display of affection


The beautiful backwater sceneries in Kerala and the story of Taj Mahal- the symbol of love may make you romantic. But think twice before performing any acts of love in public since the people around you in India is very conservative and doesn’t want to watch or do public displays of affection.

Left Hand Rule


You can give rest to your left hand while you are in India. Indian people never eat with their left hand or they won’t pass or receive anything with it. So remember – never give any gifts, money or anything with your left hand.

Feet Rule


According to Indian culture, the head is considered as the superior part of the body and feet, the inferior. So try not to touch anything important with your feet, especially books. Also never point your feet at someone and if you do, express your apologies immediately. However touching elder’s feet is considered as a sign of respect in India.

Clothing Rule


Majority of Indian people dress conservatively and it is advisable if you do the same, especially when you are in rural areas. It is better not to wear revealing or tight clothing especially when you visit places of religious significance.

Handshake rule


In India, it is generally not acceptable for men to shake hands with a woman until and unless she offers the same. If she extends her hand, you should reciprocate otherwise it is better to join your palms and wish her in Indian style.

Shoes rule


It is generally considered as good manners to remove shoes and sandals before you enter someone’s home. In some temples, people are not allowed to enter into holy areas with their shirts on.

Gift rules


The rules related to gifts vary in different parts of India. In some areas it is considered as an offence to gift white flowers since they are used in funerals. Gifting alcohol and animal-skin made products are considered as offensive in some other areas. Generally it is better to carry some sweets along with you when you are invited to someone’s home.

Smoking and drinking in Public


In India, it is offensive to consume alcohol or smoke in public. Even if you smoke, remember to ask the permission, otherwise it is considered rude. You are also not allowed to hunt or hurt animals, especially cow, which is considered as a holy animal in many areas.

Last but not the least, there are a lot of spiritually elevated people in each and every corner of India who offers magic remedies and spiritual salvation and there is no way you can distinguish the crooks. So as a traveler, it is advisable not to get into their traps and lose your money.


George Zimmerman: 7 fascinating facts


Reuters published an in-depth look at the life of George Zimmerman yesterday. Based on extensive interviews with relatives, friends, neighbors, schoolmates and co-workers of Zimmerman’s in two states, as well as court documents and police reports, the story reveals some fascinating facts about the life of the man in the middle of one of America‘s most controversial homicide cases, the shooting of Trayvon Martin.


George Zimmerman booking photo

“George Zimmerman seen here after his arrest on April 11, 2012. Zimmerman’s arrest follows weeks of anger and debate throughout the country in response to the murder of 17-year-old Trayvon Martin. Zimmerman’s attorney said his client would plead not guilty and invoke Florida’s “stand your ground” law, which gives people wide latitude to use deadly force rather than retreat during a fight. “(Sanford Police Department/Courtesy)

1. Zimmerman, a 28-year-old insurance-fraud investigator, comes from a deeply Catholic background. He was raised in a racially integrated household and has black roots through his Afro-Peruvian maternal great-grandfather, who was the father of the grandmother, Cristina, who helped raise him. She worked as a babysitter and cared for two African-American girls. They went back and forth to school with Zimmerman daily and ate all their meals at the Zimmerman home.

2. Zimmerman is bilingual and, by age 10, acted as a translator between Haydon Elementary School administrators and immigrant parents.

3. At 14, Zimmerman became obsessed with the idea of being a Marine, according to a relative. After joining the after-school ROTC program at Grace E. Metz Middle School, he polished his boots nightly. He then started working three part-time jobs when he turned 15 — in a Mexican restaurant, for the All Saints rectory where he also served as an altar boy, and washing cars. In 2004, Zimmerman opened an Allstate insurance satellite office with an African-American friend.

4. In July 2005, Zimmerman was charged with resisting arrest, violence and battery after he pushed an undercover alcohol-control agent arresting an under-age friend at a bar. Zimmerman agreed to take part in a pre-trial diversion program, including anger-management classes, and avoided conviction.

5. One month later, Zimmerman’s then-fiancée, Veronica Zuazo, filed for a restraining order, alleging domestic violence. Zimmerman did the same, and both orders were granted.

6. Zimmerman enrolled in Seminole State College in 2009 and attended a graduation ceremony in December 2011, despite being short one credit for his associate’s degree in criminal justice. He was completing that credit when the shooting occurred, and the school has since withdrawn Zimmerman’s enrollment for “the safety of our students on campus as well as for Mr. Zimmerman.”

7. After police left neighbor Olivia Bertalan’s home following a home invasion, she said Zimmerman arrived at her door in a shirt and tie, giving her his contact information on an index card and inviting her to his home to visit with his wife if she ever felt unsafe. He also returned later to give Bertalan a stronger lock for her sliding door that had been forced open.

- Reuters

Spain unemployment hits record levels

Unemployment in Spain has hit a record high, official figures released Friday show, hours after rating agency Standard & Poor’s downgraded the country’s sovereign debt for the second time this year.


Unemployment in Spain has hit a record high, official figures released Friday show.

The news comes hours after rating agency Standard & Poor’s downgraded Spain’s sovereign debt for the second time this year.

The number of jobless in Spain reached 5,639,500 at the end of March, with 365,900 people having lost their jobs in the first three months of the year, according to the country’s national statistics agency.

Unemployment in Spain now stands at 24.4 percent, the highest in the European Union, and is expected to rise further this year, the BBC reports.

Earlier this week, the Bank of Spain announced that the economy had shrunk by 0.4 percent in the first quarter of 2012, after contracting by 0.3 percent in the final three months of last year.

Official figures due to be published on Monday are expected to confirm that Spain has slipped back into recession.

According to the Associated Press, Spanish Foreign Minister Jose Manuel Garcia-Margallo told Spanish National Radio: “The figures are terrible for everyone and terrible for the government. Spain is in a crisis of enormous magnitude.”

Friday’s news is another blow to the conservative government of Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, which has angered unions by pushing through severe spending cuts and labor reforms to try to reduce Spain’s spiralling debt levels.

Late Thursday Standard & Poor’s dropped Spain’s long-term credit rating from A to BBB+, adding that the outlook on the rating is negative and warning that a further downgrade is possible.

There are now concerns that the Spanish government will not meet deficit targets agreed with the European Union and be forced into seeking a bailout as Greece, Ireland and Portugal have done before, The Daily Telegraph reports.

The Creamery: Coffee Shop at Center of Major Tech Deals

With the culture of technology and entrepreneurship going hand-in-hand nowadays, pretty much anybody with a good idea (and a better pitch) can make a deal with a venture capitalist. But most of the cream of Silicon Valley, according to Business Insider, prefers to make their deals at a particular unsuspecting coffee shop called The Creamery.

One thing about this fact though: doesn’t seem like the fad of doing tech deals in coffee shops will be going anywhere

The coffee shop is just opposite the Caltrain station, so VCs from San Francisco can get off over here. The train also stops at a couple of tech hot-spots like Palo Alto and Mountain View after this station, and so it’s very convenient.

Probably one of the reasons this place has become so popular is because of the privacy that’s served with the food. VCs especially favor this place because they can have a meeting with a founder for a potential deal and other talented entrepreneurs, and have it in peace. There are even a few tables in the coffee shop that are out of the main way for business meetings. The co-owner, Ivor Bradley, values such meetings, saying “I just want to make their food and bring it to them and leave them in privacy.”

So who would you meet if you went to this coffee-shop?

It’s a usual to see venture capitalists such as Michael Arrington (the founder and former editor of TechCrunch) and others frequenting this rustic place since it opened up five years ago. According to Arrington, it’s atypical to walk in and not see at least one deal happening over food, which is pretty good, as most patrons say– breakfast is the main priority here.

Most customers, apart from VCs, are coders and entrepreneurs. They can code away and work at their product for as long as they want to on their laptop, as long as they do it before lunch (and order something). They even pitch Bradley with an idea or two sometimes.

Those who want to stay through lunch can visit the restaurant next door that’s run by the same team. The Creamery also has happy hours, with inexpensive beer and wine– both favorites of any startup’s employee in San Francisco.

Bradley told the Business Insider he had no idea his place would become the hotspot it has. Today, it’s the coffee shop at the center of a number of tech deals, and the place where a number of top apps were reportedly born.

India’s Worst-Behaved Motorists are in Bangalore

Every two days, three pedestrians are killed on roads and annually more than 10,000 are hospitalized – ONLY in BANGALORE CITY.  And today the motorist behavior is a heated topic of discussion, the arrogance and negligence of motorists in cities killing many and injuring many more.

The tech capital of India, Bangalore scored the lowest in the category on the motorist behavior in cities – the miserable score of all – 30 out of 100. However, the city scored 45 in overall walkability index while Pune scored the highest with 54, Rajkot 53, Bhuvaneswar 50, Surat 43, and Chennai 40.

The survey was carried out by a New Delhi-based green group called Clean air initiative aimed to determine the walkability (walking infrastructure availability) of Indian cities. Initially conducted in 13 Asian cites, the survey was later extended to seven Indian cities namely – Bhubaneswar, Bangalore, Pune, Indore, Rajkot, Chennai and Surat. It aims to draw constructive results from the walkability parameters and educate the stakeholders and policymakers on the necessary changes.

Bangalore scored the least in the category called disability infrastructure with a shocking low score of 24 against 100. Disability infrastructure category measures the availability of positioning and maintenance of infrastructure for the disabled.

Adding misery to the plight of the Bangalore pedestrians struggling with poor infrastructure, vehicles hardly stop for people to cross the roads and you can seldom see any zebra crossing at signals as vehicles often halt on them leaving the pedestrians a very minimum or no space to cross the road. Footpaths are often taken over by bickers.

“Although the pedestrian fatality share at the national level is 13 percent, metropolitan cities like Bangalore New Delhi and Kolkata have a pedestrian fatality share greater than 40 percent,” the survey finds. Elderly people and school children carry a large share of the burden with 23 percent fatalities and 25 percent injuries. “Bangalore has drafted a policy paper for pedestrian movement in the Bangalore metropolitan region. The policy paper and the comprehensive traffic and transportation study envision a pedestrian mode share target of only 20 percent by 2015. With such a relatively small vision and target, the city may be planning for poor walkability, the survey suggests.

Walking path modal conflict, availability of walking paths, availability of crossings, grade crossing safety, motorist behavior, amenities, disability infrastructure, obstructions and security from crime were the parameters on which the survey was made.

Superstar CEOs from Harvard University

  The Harvard Business School has produced many talented people and today they have made a niche in the society. Having a tag of Harvard is more than enough to stand out in the crowd. The Harvard University was incorporated in 1908 and it has given many well known names to the corporate world today and is still in making. Listed are some CEOs who are graduates from Harvard.

Jamie Dimon, JP Morgan Chase

James “Jamie” Dimon is the current CEO of JP Morgan Chase. He majored in psychology and economics at Tufts University. After graduating, he worked in management consulting for two years before joining Harvard Business School along with classmates Jeffrey Immelt, Steve Burke and Seth Klarman. He was continuously named to Time magazine’s 2006, 2008, 2009, and 2011 lists of the world’s 100 most influential people. Apart from that he was also named to Institutional Investor’s Best CEOs list in the All-America Executive Team Survey from 2008 through 2011. In the year 2011, he was named the CEO of the Year. He received a $23 million pay package for fiscal year 2011, more than any other bank CEO in the United States.

Stephen A. Schwarzman, Blackstone Group

Stephen Allen Schwarzman , the American billionaire private equity financier and former investment banker, is today well known as the co-founder of the Blackstone Group. He studied at Yale University during the same period as George W. Bush, one year behind him and graduated in 1969. After that he went on to Harvard Business School and graduated in 1972.

Meg Whitman, Ebay

Margaret Cushing “Meg” Whitman, the American business executive is presently the President and CEO of Hewlett-Packard.   She is a native of Long Island New York, and graduated from Princeton University and Harvard Business School. Whitman served as an executive in The Walt Disney Company where she acted as the Vice president of strategic planning throughout the 1980s. She worked as an executive for DreamWorks, Procter & Gamble, and Hasbro. Whitman served as President and CEO of eBay from 1998 to 2008. All through her ten years with the company, she oversaw expansion from 30 employees and $4 million in annual revenue to more than 15,000 employees and $8 billion in annual revenue.

Lloyd Blankfein, Goldman Sachs

Lloyd Craig Blankfein  is currently serving as  the CEO and Chairman of Goldman Sachs. He has been in this place since the May 31, 2006 nomination of former CEO Henry Paulson as Secretary of the Treasury under George W. Bush. Blankfein comes from a Jewish family. He received primary and secondary education in the public schools of the New York City Department of Education, and was the valedictorian at Thomas Jefferson High School in 1971. He attended Harvard College, where he lived in Winthrop House, and earned his A.B. in 1975. In 1978, Blankfein received a J.D. degree from Harvard Law School.

J. Hick Lanier, Oxford Industries

John Hicks Lanier has been working as the Chairman of the Board and CEO of Oxford Industries since 1981. Lanier graduated from Vanderbilt University and received an M.B.A. from Harvard University in 1964. . He served as  the director of the Piedmont Medical Center, the American Apparel Manufacturers Association, and Shaw Industries. In 1981, he became the Chairman of the Board and the CEO of Oxford Industries, a company co-founded by his father, Sartain Lanier. He is a former trustee of the Westminster Schools of Atlanta and the Henrietta Egleston Hospital for Children and presently sits on the Board of Trustees of Vanderbilt University since 1997 and on the Sartain Lanier Family Foundation. He sits on the Board of Directors of the Georgia Chamber of Commerce. He is also a member of Central Atlanta Progress.

James McNerney, Boeing

W. James “Jim” McNerney, Jr, is the currently the CEO of Boeing.  McNerney graduated from New Trier High School in 1967. He attended Yale University, receiving a B.A. degree in 1971. At Yale he outshined in baseball and hockey. After graduating from Yale he worked for a year at both British United Provident and G. D. Searle & Company, then attended Harvard Business School, receiving a Master of Business Administration in 1975.

John Thain, TIT Group

John Alexander Thain, the American businessman and investment banker is today serving the TIT Group as its CEO. Prior to this, he was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Merrill Lynch before its merger with Bank of America. He went to MIT and owns a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering. Later he attended Harvard Business School for an MBA. Thain has been nicknamed “Superman”, as he look alike to the character alter-ego Clark Kent. Thain’s 25 acres property in New York State spans three townships, Rye, Harrison, and Rye Brook.

Jeffrey Immelt, General Electric

Jeffrey Robert “Jeff” Immelt is currently working as the CEO of U.S. based multinational General Electric. . He holds an B.A. in Applied Mathematics from Dartmouth College where he presently serves on the board of trustees and was President of his fraternity, Phi Delta Alpha, and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School. He has been with GE since 1982. Along with that he is on the board of two non-profit organizations, one of which is the Robin Hood Foundation, a charitable organization that efforts to improve problems caused by poverty in New York City. He replaced Jack Welch in 2000 and headed GE ad its CEO.

2G: SC Refuses to Grant 400 Days to Centre for Licence Auction

The Supreme Court refused to grant 400 days to the government to complete the process of fresh auctioning of the 2G spectrum licences but extended the deadline for it from June 2 to August 31, 2012.

A bench of justices G S Singvhi and K S Radhakrishnan also said the existing licences for 2G spectrum will continue to be operational till September 7, 2012.

“In our view, it will be just and proper to partially accept the averments made in the application (by the Centre).

“Accordingly, the time specified for conducting the auction and grant of licences is extended upto August 31, 2012,” said the bench.

The bench also said its February 2 order cancelling 122 licences, allocated during the tenure of A Raja, will remain operational.

The bench made it clear that it was not going to accept the Centre’s prayer for allowing it 400 days to complete the process of auctioning radio waves.

The bench was hearing the Centre’s application, seeking clarification of its direction in the February 2, 2012 judgement which had fixed June 2 as the deadline, when the 122 2G spectrum licenses, issued in 2008, would stand quashed.

The court had asked the Centre to complete the process of fresh actioning by June 2.

During the hearing, Attorney General G E Vahanvati tried to explain the practical difficulties and implication of the apex court order, which had asked the government to complete the entire exercise of fresh auctioning by June 2.

Vahanvati also appraised the bench about the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India‘s (TRAI) recommendation which were announced yesterday.
Source: PTI

Six defence firms banned for 10 years

Six defence firms, including four from abroad, named in a CBI chargesheet in a graft case involving a former Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) chief, were banned March 5 from doing business in India for the next 10 years.

Singapore Technologies, Israeli Military Industries, Germany’s Rheinmetall Air Defence and Corporation Defence Russia, as also two Indian firms, were debarred from dealing with the OFB, defence production department and the defence ministry. The Indian firms facing the action are New Delhi-based T.S. Kishan and Company Private Limited and Ludhiana-based R.K. Machine Tools Limited.

“The defence ministry today (Monday) decided to debar six firms from from further business dealings with the Ordnance Factory Board, Department of Defence Production, MoD, for a period of 10 years,” defence ministry spokesperson Sitanshu Kar said in an official statement here.

The action is a consequence of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) chargesheet against former OFB director general Sudipto Ghosh, and the probe agency’s recommendation for blacklisting the six firms. The CBI had filed the chargesheet against Ghosh and several others involved in the graft case in June 2010.

“The firms were recommended for blacklisting by the CBI on the basis of evidence collected against them,” Kar said.

“These firms were issued notice to show cause as to why action against them should not be taken consequent to the filing of the charge sheet in the case related to illegal gratification against Ghosh and others.

“The decision to debar them was taken today after taking into consideration their replies,” Kar added.

The government had in June 2009 decided to put on hold all defence dealings with these companies that were named by the CBI in the graft case against Ghosh and recommended to the defence ministry that they be blacklisted.

However, some of the firms appeled and the Delhi High Court quashed the order, noting that principles of natural justice were not followed by providing the companies an opportunity to be heard.

The government then issued show cause notices to the firms. After receiving their replies to the notice, the decision to ban them was taken.

As Bofors and Denel, two producers of artillery guns, were already banned in India, there were apprehensions in 2009 that halting defence business dealings with some of the firms, particularly STK and IMI, would impact the Indian Army’s artillery modernisation programme.

At that time, the STK was ahead for the army’s over $1 billion order for 155mm ultr- light howitzers for mountain deployment. Since then, India had decided to buy 145 of the M777 guns from BAE Systems through the foreign military sales route from the US.

The IMI had, in April 2009, won a $300 million contract for building a chain of ordnance factories in Nalanda, Bihar, to manufacture ammunition for Bofors 155mm guns. The decision to debar IMI has resulted in the project being adversely affected.

T.S. Kishan and Company manufactures explosive shells for the 155mm Bofors guns through a tie-up with OFB.

R.K. Machine Tools is a supplier of components to the OFB such as 120mm shells and 155mm ammunition and flares for the artillery guns.


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