A Japanese Soldier Who Continued Fighting WWII 29 Years After the Japanese Surrendered, Because He Didn’t Know


Hiroo Onoda is a Japanese citizen that originally worked at a Chinese trading company.  When he was 20 years old, he was called to join the Japanese army.  He promptly quit his job and headed off to training in Japan.  At a certain point in his training, he was chosen to be trained at Nakano School as an Imperial Army Intelligence Officer.  In this specialized military intelligence training, he was specifically taught methods of gathering intelligence and how to conduct guerrilla warfare.  He was being groomed to go in behind enemy lines and be left with small pockets of soldiers to make life miserable for Japan’s enemies and gather intelligence in the process.

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On December 26th, 1944, Onoda was sent to Lubang Island in the Philippines.  His orders from his commanding officers, Major Yoshimi Taniguchi, were simple:

You are absolutely forbidden to die by your own hand. It may take three years, it may take five, but whatever happens, we’ll come back for you. Until then, so long as you have one soldier, you are to continue to lead him. You may have to live on coconuts. If that’s the case, live on coconuts! Under no circumstances are you [to] give up your life voluntarily.

Onoda then linked up with Japanese soldiers already on the island and shortly thereafter the island was overrun by enemy troops when other officers that were already on the island refused to help fulfill part of the orders that Onoda was given to destroy the harbor and airfield among other things.  This in turn made it easier for the Allied forces to conquer the island, landing on February 28th, 1945.  Shortly after the island was conquered the remaining Japanese soldiers split up into small groups of 3 or 4 and headed into the jungle.

Most of these small groups were quickly killed off.  Onoda’s group though consisting of himself, Yuichi Akatsu, Siochi Shimada, and Kinshichi Kozuka, were not.  They continued to use guerrilla warfare tactics to harry the enemy troops as best they could while strictly rationing supplies including food, ammo, etc.  Supplementing their small rice rations with bananas, coconuts, and other food from the jungle as well as doing raids on local farms when they could manage it.

In October 1945, after another cell had killed a cow from a local farm for food, they came across a leaflet from the local islanders to them saying “The war ended August 15th.  Come down from the mountains!”  The few remaining cells discussed this leaflet extensively, but eventually decided that it was Allied propaganda trying to get them to give themselves up.  They felt that there was no way that Japan could have lost so quickly since the time when they were deployed.  Indeed, this would seem strange to anyone who had no knowledge of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.  Also, another one of the cells had been fired upon just a few days before; they felt that this wouldn’t have happened if the war was over.

Eventually, near the end of the same year local islanders, fed up with being shot at and raided, got a Boeing B-17 to drop leaflets all over the jungle.  These leaflets had the order to surrender printed on them from General Yamashita.  The few remaining cells once again scrutinized these leaflets to try to determine their authenticity.  In the end, the wording on the leaflet pertaining to the method with which they would be sent back to Japan seemed fishy to them; largely because the wording made it seem as if Japan had lost, something they couldn’t fathom and which was a big problem in their willingness to accept the war had ended.  If Japan had won, they would come and get them.  Japan couldn’t lose, so the war must still be going.  So they once again believed it was the Allies becoming more tired of their successful guerrilla tactics and trying to get them to surrender.

When this didn’t work, more leaflets were dropped with newspapers from Japan; photographs and letters from the soldiers families; delegates were sent from Japan and went through the jungle speaking over loudspeakers begging the soldiers to give themselves up.  In every case the cells encountered, there was always something suspicious in their minds about the way it was done to cause them to believe it was an elaborate hoax by the Allied troops.

Years passed in the jungle with these four soldiers continuing to perform their sworn duty of harrying the enemy at every opportunity and gather intelligence as best they could.  At a certain point, when most everybody they saw was dressed in civilian clothing, they began thinking that this too was a ruse from the Allied forces to lull the Japanese guerrilla soldiers into a false sense of confidence.  They considered the fact that every time they fired on these “civilians” shortly thereafter search parties would arrive hunting them.  Over time they had gradually let their solitude twist their minds into thinking everyone was an enemy, even their own fellow Japanese who would occasionally come and try to find them and get them to come home.  These of course in their minds were Japanese prisoners forced to come lure them away from the safety of the jungle.

Eventually, after about 5 years in the jungle, Akatsu decided he would surrender, but didn’t tell the other three soldiers.  So, in 1949 he slipped away from the others and after 6 months alone in the jungle was able to successfully surrender to what he thought were Allied troops.  Because of this event, Onoda’s cell became even more cautious and went into deeper hiding and took fewer risks as they viewed Akatsu leaving as a security threat.  “What if he was captured”, they thought.

About 5 years later, another of the small group, Shimada was killed in a skirmish on the beach at Gontin.  Now there were only two, Onoda and Kozuka.

For about 17 more years the two lived in the jungle, gathering intelligence as best they could and attacking the “enemy troops” when they could risk it.  They were still convinced that eventually Japan would dispatch more troops and they would then train these troops in guerrilla warfare and use the intelligence they had gathered to re-take the island.  After all, their orders were to stay put and do as they had done until their commanding officer came and got them and their commanding officers had promised to do so no matter what.

Now in October 1972, after 27 years of hiding Kozuka was killed during a fight with a Filipino patrol.   The Japanese had long thought he had already died, they didn’t think he could have survived so long in the jungle.  But now when they had his body, they began thinking perhaps Onoda was also still alive, even though he had also long since been declared dead.

The Japanese then sent a search party to try to find Onoda in the jungle.  Unfortunately, he was too good at hiding with 27 years of practice.  They could not find him.  Onoda continued his mission.

Finally in 1974 a college student, Nario Suzuki, decided to travel the world.  Among his list of things to do on his journey was to find “Onoda, a panda, and the Abominable Snowman”.   He traveled to the island and trekked through the jungle searching for signs of Onoda.  Shockingly, where literally thousands of others through the last 29 years had failed, Suzuki succeeded.  He found Onoda’s dwelling place and Onoda himself.

He then proceeded to try to convince Onoda to come home with him.  Onoda refused.  His commanding officers had said they would return for him no matter what.  He would not surrender nor believe the war was over until they returned and ordered him to do so.  At this point, he would not have been allowed to simply go home; he would be required to surrender and throw himself on the mercy of the enemy.  Over the years he had been too successful at using the guerrilla tactics he had mastered.  Killing 30 Filipinos and injuring over 100 others as well as destroying various crops and the like for almost 30 years.

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Suzuki then traveled back to Japan with the news he’d found Onoda; Major Taniguchi, now retired and working at a book store, was then brought back to the island and to Onoda to tell him that Japan had lost the war and he was to give up his weapons and surrender to the Filipinos.

As you might expect, after living in the jungle doing what he thought was his duty helping Japan, now only turning out to be wasting 29 years of his life, and worse killing and injuring innocent civilians, this came as a crushing blow to Onoda.

We really lost the war! How could they have been so sloppy?

Suddenly everything went black. A storm raged inside me. I felt like a fool for having been so tense and cautious on the way here. Worse than that, what had I been doing for all these years?

Gradually the storm subsided, and for the first time I really understood: my thirty years as a guerrilla fighter for the Japanese army were abruptly finished. This was the end.

I pulled back the bolt on my rifle and unloaded the bullets. . . .

I eased off the pack that I always carried with me and laid the gun on top of it. Would I really have no more use for this rifle that I had polished and cared for like a baby all these years? Or Kozuka’s rifle, which I had hidden in a crevice in the rocks? Had the war really ended thirty years ago? If it had, what had Shimada and Kozuka died for? If what was happening was true, wouldn’t it have been better if I had died with them?

On March 10th, 1975 at the age of 52, Onoda in full uniform that was somehow still immaculately kept, marched out of the jungle and surrendered his samurai sword to the Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos.  Marcos, very unpopularly in the Philippines, but immensely popular in Japan, pardoned Onoda for his crimes, given that Onoda had thought he was still at war the entire time.

Now in the end, we might look at Onoda as a fool and worse, a murder of innocent people.  In the end, he was both of those things, there is no denying it.  But at the same time, not everyone who lives by strict convictions and puts their all into achieving what they believe to be the right thing, ends up having what they strive towards turn out well or end up being a good thing.  This is one of those cases where someone did something remarkable, showing extreme dedication to his country and his duty, as well as fortitude unmatched by many in history.

Had circumstances been different and the war really had waged on so long; soldiers and people from both sides of the fight would have respected him for his courage and dedication.  In that respect he was more of a hero.  However, the world wasn’t the way he thought and in the end, in retrospect, he was more a fool than anything else.  But at the same time, we can’t ignore that this was a man who did something great with respect to doing something that few others could have done; had circumstances been as he thought, what he did was something to be admired.  He faced (what he thought) was death around every corner and lived in an extreme situation for 30 years, fighting for his country.  That should be respected.  It’s a rare person who could do something like that and never quite or surrender; never take the easy way out as most of us do all the time when faced with adversity that is orders of magnitude less than what Onoda faced for almost 30 years in the jungle.

Bonus Onoda Facts

  • When Onoda returned to Japan, he was seen as a hero.  He was also given his pay for the last 30 years.  Life was much different in Japan now than he remembered, and not at all to his liking.  Many of the traditional Japanese virtues he cherished such as patriotism were nearly non-existent in the culture; indeed in his view Japan now cow-towed to the rest of the world and had lost its pride and sense of itself.  So he moved to Brazil and used his pay to buy himself a ranch there and eventually married.
  • Onoda released an autobiography: No Surrender, My Thirty-Year War in which he details his life as a guerrilla fighter.
  • After reading about a Japanese teenager who had murdered his own parents in 1980, Onoda became even more distressed at the state of his country and young people in Japan.  He then returned to Japan in 1984, establishing a nature school for young people where he could teach them various survival techniques and teach them to be more independent and better Japanese citizens.
  • In May 1996, he returned to the Philippines to the island he had lived for 30 years donating $10,000 to local schools; as you might imagine, he is not too popular with the locals there, despite the donation.
  • Men should never give up. I never do. I would hate to lose.
  • Men should never compete with women. If they do, the guys will always lose. That is because women have a lot more endurance. My mother said that, and she was so right.
  • One must always be civic-minded. Every minute of every day, for 30 years, I served my country. I have never even wondered if that was good or bad for me as an individual.
  • Parents should raise more independent children. When I was living in Brazil in the 1980s, I read that a 19-year-old Japanese man killed his parents after failing the university entrance exam. I was stunned. Why had he killed his parents instead of moving out? I guess he didn’t have enough confidence. I thought this was a sign that Japanese were getting too weak. I decided to move back to Japan to establish a nature school to give children more power.
  • Parents should remember that they are supposed to die before their children. Nobody will help them later on, so the greatest gift parents can give their children is independence.
  • Never complain. When I did, my mother said that if I didn’t like my life, I could just give up and die. She reminded me that when I was inside her, I told her that I wanted to be born, so she delivered me, breastfed me and changed my diapers. She said that I had to be brave.

China To Engage In ‘Six Inevitable Wars’ Involving U.S., Japan, India And More, According To Pro-Government Chinese Newspaper


China‘s announcement last weekend of an Air Defense Identification Zone, which includes disputed areas of the East China Sea, has ratcheted up tensions between China and her neighbors, leading some to believe war is imminent.

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The new air defense area includes the airspace above the hotly disputed cluster of tiny islands known as the Diaoyu to China and the Senkaku to the Japanese. International reaction to the ADIZ, particularly from Japan and its ally the U.S., has been uniformly defiant. In addition to official statements from Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida and U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel, Reuters reported Tuesday that two U.S. military aircraft have flown around the disputed islands in direct defiance of China’s ADIZ.

“We have conducted operations in the area of the Senkakus,” spokesman Col. Steve Warren said, using the Japanese name for the islands. In addition to declaring the zone’s wide boundaries, Chinese military forces announced that all air travel in the designated ADIZ must be reported to avoid “emergency defensive measures in response.” The U.S. did the flyover without addressing the demands made by China. “We have continued to follow our normal procedures, which include not filing flight plans, not radioing ahead and not registering our frequencies,” Warren continued.

The new ADIZ has brought added tension to one of China’s several current territorial disputes. As pointed out in Shanghai-based news-blog, The Shanghaiist.com, earlier this summer, a particularly strident pro-government local newspaper, Weweipo, published a war-mongering article describing the “Six Wars China Is Sure to Fight In the Next 50 Years.” The article essentially predicts that most of China’s current border disputes will eventually lead to war.

Over the next 50 years, the article expects China to be engaged in war over the following issues:

1. Taiwanese unification (2020-2025)

While China and Taiwan currently have fairly peaceful relations, the mainland continues to strive for “unification.”

2. South China Sea islands (2025-2030)

According to a translation of the original article, as published by StratRisk.com, following the inevitable “return” of Taiwan, “South East Asian countries” will “already be shivering.” This momentum will be the driving force behind negotiations to “reconquer” South China Sea islands like the Spratlys, which neighboring governments like Taiwan, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam all lay claim to.

3. “Southern Tibet” (2035-2040)

Though China and India share a long border along China’s southwest region, a Himalayan area claimed as “southern Tibet” is the main point of contention between the two huge nations. The article suggests that “the best strategy for China is to incite the disintegration of India” by dividing the nation into several smaller countries so “India will have no power to cope with China.”

4. East China Sea islands (2040-2045)

Unsurprisingly, the newspaper reaffirms that the East China Sea island groups of Diaoyu and Ryukyu, known in Japan as Senkaku and Okinawa, belong to China. While the article says the conflict won’t take place until 2040, other scholars have estimated that a war between China and Japan, and likely the U.S., could happen sooner.

5. “Outer” Mongolia (2045-2050)

“If Outer Mongolia can return to China peacefully, it is the best result, of course; but if China meets foreign intervention or resistance, China should be prepared to take military action,” the article reads.

6. “Recover the territory seized by Russia” (2055-2060)

The article recognizes the current good relations between China and Russia but insists that “China never forgets the lands lost to Russia” in past centuries, adding that “when the chance comes, China will take back the lands.”

The article is predictably confident that all wars would be won by the Chinese side, and Russia is no different: “After the victories of previous five wars, it is time to make Russians pay the price.”

Powerful #Earthquake could hit #Iran in the next 48 hours


World Earthquakes predicts high seismic activity in Iran and Japan may in the next 48 hours

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There is a possibility of a powerful earthquake hitting Iran in the next 48 hours, according to the World Earthquakes data.

“High seismic activity may occur for the next 48 hours” in Iran, the World Earthquake said on Friday.

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has also predicted that a powerful earthquake that could hit the region between Thursday, April 25, and Tuesday, April 30. But UAE’s National Center of Meteorology & Seismology said that it’s a rumour and earthquakes cannot be predicted.IRAN-QUAKE

On Thursday, A 5.2-magnitude earthquake hit northwestern Iran on Thursday, only days after a deadly temblor struck near the border with Pakistan, media reported citing the seismological centre at Tehran.

Last Tuesday, a huge earthquake measuring 7.8 struck southeastern Iran killing a woman and injuring more than a dozen other people. At least 40 people were killed across the border in Pakistan where hundreds of mud homes were levelled. The tremors from the earthquake were felt across the Gulf region.

Iran sits astride several major fault lines and is prone to frequent earthquakes, some of which have been devastating.

Tuesday’s earthquake was the strongest to hit Iran since 1957.

A double earthquake, one measuring 6.2 and the other 6.0, struck northwestern Iran last August, killing more than 300 people and injuring 3,000.

The World Earthquakes also warned of another powerful quake possibly hitting Japan in the next 48 hours.

On Friday, a major 7.2-magnitude earthquake struck off northern Japan on Friday, seismologists said, but no tsunami warning was issued.

Netaji’s daughter hopes to bring her father’s ashes to India


Legendary freedom fighter Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose‘s daughter Anita Pfaff Sunday hoped to bring her father’s “ashes” kept in Japan back to India, saying it would be the “perfect homecoming for him”.

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“If it is possible, I would like to,” replied Pfaff to queries if she would like to bring Netaji’s “ashes” back to the country of his birth.

“It would be the perfect homecoming for him,” she said on the sidelines of a book launch on Netaji here. The book “Netaji in Europe” written by Jan Kuhlmann was launched at the Oxford bookstore.

Pfaff also stated that she “firmly believes” that Netaji died in a plane crash in Taiwan and that the ashes kept in the Renkoji Temple in Japan are her father’s.

A branch of Netaji’s family as also many others outside believe that he died in a plane crash in Taiwan on Aug 18, 1945, and his ashes are preserved in the Renkoji temple in Tokyo. But there is also a strong second opinion across the nation which nixes the aircrash theory and does not consider the Renkoji ashes as those of Bose.

Also present at the event was D.N. Bose, Netaji’s nephew, who doesn’t believe in the “plane crash theory” and rubbished the claims that the ashes were of Netaji.

“People have the right to form their personal opinions and I have nothing to say about Anita’s claims. But what I know and is true, is that the ashes are not of Netaji. He never died in the crash,” said Bose quoting the Mukherjee Commission report to buttress his claims.

The Mukherjee Commission, the one-man board of retired Supreme Court judge Manoj Mukherjee was instituted in 1999 to inquire into the controversy surrounding the reported death of Netaji in 1945. It concluded that he did not die in the plane crash, as alleged, but probably flew towards the (erstwhile) USSR and the ashes in the Japanese temple are not of Netaji.

World #Nuclear Electricity Generation Down 5 Percent Since 2006


World nuclear electricity-generating capacity has been essentially flat since 2007 and is likely to fall as plants retire faster than new ones are built. In fact, the actual electricity generated at nuclear power plants fell 5 percent between 2006 and 2011.

In 2011, following Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, 13 nuclear reactors in Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom were permanently taken offline. Seven new reactors, three of them in China, were connected to the grid. The net result was a two percent reduction in world nuclear capacity to 369,000 megawatts by the end of 2011. In 2012, the world has added a net 3,000 megawatts of nuclear capacity, with new additions in South Korea and Canada partly offset by more U.K. shutdowns.


© Earth Policy Institute

The United States, with 104 nuclear reactors generating some 19 percent of the country’s electricity, leads the world in nuclear generating capacity. France is a distant second in installed capacity, but its 58 reactors meet more than three quarters of the country’s electricity demand. (President François Hollande has pledged to reduce this dependence to 50 percent by 2025.)


© Earth Policy Institute

China, Russia, South Korea, and India account for 48 of the 64 nuclear reactors the International Atomic Energy Agency lists as under construction worldwide. Although these 64 reactors add up to some 62,000 megawatts of potential new capacity, fewer than one in four has a projected date for connecting to the electrical grid. Some reactors have been listed as “under construction” for over two decades.


© Earth Policy Institute

Plagued by cost overruns, construction delays, and a dearth of private investment interest, the world’s nuclear reactor fleet is aging quickly as new reactor connections struggle to keep up with retirements. The average age of nuclear reactors operating today is 27 years; the 142 reactors that have already retired were just 23 years old on average when they closed. Many nuclear reactors have been granted operating extensions, usually for 20 years, beyond their typical design lifetime of 40 years. But since Fukushima, where the four retired reactors averaged 37 years in operation, this option has become less attractive.


© Earth Policy Institute

In contrast to the decline in nuclear power, electricity generation from the wind and the sun has grown 27 percent and 62 percent, respectively, per year since 2006. Four German states now get close to half of their electricity from wind. By 2015, China plans to increase its current estimated 60,000 megawatts of grid-connected wind power capacity to 100,000 megawatts. More solar photovoltaic capacity was added in the European Union in 2011 than any other source of electricity generation. The list of exciting developments in renewable energy goes on. As this story unfolds, it is becoming increasingly clear that we can design an energy economy that is at once low-carbon and low-risk.

By J. Matthew Roney

 

Strong quake hits off coast of northeastern Japan, tsunami warning issued


A strong earthquake centred off the coast of northeastern Japan shook buildings as far as Tokyo and led to a tsunami warning for coastal areas of the northeast, public broadcaster NHK said on Friday.

The earthquake had a preliminary magnitude of 7.3, the U.S. Geological Survey said, adding that there was no risk of a widespread tsunami. That was revised from an earlier estimate of 7.4.

A warning for a one-metre tsunami was issued for the coast of Miyagi Prefecture in northeastern Japan, which was hit by a devastating earthquake and tsunami in March 2011.

That quake triggered fuel-rod meltdowns at the Fukushima nuclear plant, causing radiation leakage, contamination of food and water and mass evacuations in the world’s worst nuclear crisis since Chernobyl in 1986.

The government declared in December that the disaster was under control, but much of the area is still free of population.

Tokyo Electric Power Co (9501.T), the operator of the Fukushima nuclear plant, reported no irregularities at its nuclear plants after the latest quake.

Reuters

Richest Countries in the World in 2012


If wealth describes power, then the United Sates leads the pack and India is not far behind either.

The 10 richest countries in the world based on their GDP are:

1. United States of America:

The United States of America is the richest country in the world and ranks first on the list. The U.S. is a market-oriented economy where private individuals and business companies make most of the decisions. The U.S. economy is the world’s largest national economy, with an estimated GDP of $15.1 trillion in 2011.

2. China:

China is the second richest country in the world. China’s annual GDP growth is 2.26 percent earning $7,743.144 trillion. The country’s economy is the second largest in the world after that of the United States. During the past thirty years China’s economy has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented one that has a rapidly growing private sector.  A chief component supporting China’s rapid economic growth has been exports growth.

3. Japan:

Japan is the second Asian country which is on the list. It is the third wealthiest country in the world. Japan is renowned for its aggressiveness in the global economy market having an upper hand in multi-national operation. The country has a USD $6,124.899 trillion. The Japanese economy is the third largest in the world. Japan is the world’s second largest automobile manufacturing country and has the largest electronics goods industry. The country is the world’s largest creditor nation as well. Its economy is highly efficient and competitive in areas linked to international trade, though productivity is far lower in protected areas such as agriculture, distribution, and services.

4. Germany:

 Germany takes the fourth place on the list. It is also the richest country in Europe and has produced a sum of USD $3,706.970 trillion. Ever since the age of industrialization, the country has been a driver, innovator, and beneficiary of an ever more globalised economy. Germany is the largest national economy in Europe. The country is the world’s second largest exporter and its exports account for more than one-third of national output.

5. France:

France is the fifth richest country in the world. The country has long been part of the world’s wealthiest and most developed national economies. France is believed to be the second biggest economic strength in Europe due to France’s focus on various industrial support and new age industrialized nations. Achieving USD $2,889.708 trillion booked at the end of year 2011 and 2012 makes France feature on the top five richest nations.

6. Brazil:

Brazil ranks sixth on the list. It is the richest South American county. The country had a closed nominal GDP of 0.80 percent earning USD $2,617.987 trillion before the end of 2011. The Brazilian economy is the world’s sixth largest by nominal GDP and is expected to become fifth by the end of 2012. Brazil’s earning come directly from their service segment, mining, manufacturing products and farming harvest. The country has moderately free markets and an inward-oriented economy. It is also known to be the fastest-growing major economies in the world with an average annual GDP growth rate of over 5 percent.

7. United Kingdom:

United Kingdom takes the seventh place on the list. UK had an average nominal GDP escalation of 0.58 percent earning USD $2,603.880 trillion at the end of 2011. UK’s GDP per capita is the twenty second highest in the world in nominal terms and the twenty second highest measured by PPP. It is the world’s most globalised countries. Its aerospace industry is one of the largest national aerospace industries and the pharmaceutical industry of the country plays an important role in its economy as well. The British economy is boosted by North Sea oil and gas reserves which was valued at an estimated £250 billion in 2007.

8. Italy:

Italy takes the eighth spot on the top 10 list of richest countries in 2012. Italy is a member of the G8 group of leading industrialized countries. The country has broadened its horizons for its industrial and road and rail network developments. Due to this advancement, the country has a nominal GDP of USD $2,287.704 trillion. The country has a diversified industrial economy with high gross domestic product per capita and developed infrastructure. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods that are produced by small and medium-sized enterprises.

9. Russia:

Russia takes the ninth position on the list. In 2011 Russia’s GDP grew by 4.2 percent, which is the world’s third highest growth rate among leading economies. The country has the ninth largest economy in the world by nominal value and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity. Russia is also abundant in natural gas, coal, oil and precious metals. Russia’s capital, Moscow, is noted to have the highest billionaire population of any city in the world.

10. India:


Surprisingly India makes it to the top 10 list of richest countries in the world. India takes the tenth place. India has the eleventh largest Economy in the world by nominal GDP and the third largest by purchasing power parity. The country’s present up-to-date development according to GDP is USD $2.012.760.000 million and this was predicted by the economists in the beginning of 2011. As a matter of fact, by means of the assessment, there was an 8.2 percent progress before the year 2011 came to an end.